Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) by country
In human genetics, Haplogroup G (M) is a Y-chromosomehaplogroup
Main article: Haplogroup G-M
None of the sampling done by research studies shown here would qualify as true random sampling, and thus any percentages of haplogroup G provided country by country are only rough approximations of what would be found in the full population.
In 46 samples taken in Algeria in a study, 2% were found to be G. SNP testing was not done, but this one sample was predicted G based on haplotype. When originally tested for SNPs, G was not an available test. In a study, none of 20 samples from BerberMozabites in Algeria were G.
In a study of men in the Comoros Islands off the southeastern African coast, % were G2a (P15+) and % were in other unspecified G categories, but none were G1.
Of samples from among Egyptians in Egypt (), 9% were G. And in a study, among Egyptians, % were G. In a study of 35 samples from oasis el-Hayez in the western Egyptian desert area, none were G.
A survey of the population of Libya based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but a close approximation for the population in Tripoli in the western part of the country based on the STR markers of 63 samples from there in the YHRD database indicates % are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Of 20 Jews of Libya, 10% were found to be G. These men seemingly were then living in Israel.
In samples taken in Morocco, 1% were found to be G.
In another study 1% of samples in Morocco were G.
Another study gathered samples only from hamlets in Morocco's Azgour Valley, where none of 33 samples were determined G. These hamlets were selected because they were felt to be typically Berber in composition.
A study of 20 Moroccan Jews found 30% were G. The tested men were then apparently living in Israel. Another study of Jewish men found % of 83 Jewish men from Morocco belonged to haplogroup G.
In a study, in South Africa no G was found among 8 African men. In a study, no G found in South Africa among southeastern Bantu speakers or Khoe-San speakers, but % of South African whites were G.
Anatolia, the Levant and Arabian Peninsula
Among samples from Cyprus, % were G.
Among samples taken in Iraq in a study, % were found to be G. In a study, % of Marsh Arabs were found to be G, versus % of other Iraqis.
A study sampled 20 Iraqi Jews (apparently living in Israel), and 10% were found to be G2a (P15+). Another study of Iraqi Jews in found % of 79 men were G.
Among Jews in Israel % were found to be G. The G2a (P15+) types were in the majority, with G2b (formerly G2c) being the next most common type.
Among the GnosticDruze, G was found in 4% of 37 samples on the Golan Heights; in 14% of samples in the Galilee; and in 12% of 35 samples in the Carmel. Another study which sampled 20 Druze men apparently living in Israel, none had the G mutation.
Among Palestinians apparently living in Israel, 75% of 20 samples were found to be G2a (P15+). In the same study, among Samaritans in Israel none of 12 samples was G. In the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel (CEPH-HDGP) "Central Israel" Palestinian sample (n=17), 59% (10) were G.
A study of Druze men found % were haplogroup G. This study was not confined to Israel, but was probably mostly Israeli.
Among samples taken in Jordan, % were G.
In another study, % of Jordanian samples at Amman were G, and 0% of 45 samples in the Dead Sea area in Jordan were G.
In 42 samples taken in Kuwait, % were G.
In a study confined to Bedouin tribes of Kuwait, among samples % were G. Most of these were found among the Aniza. All these were G2a (P15+).
In samples in a study from Lebanon, 6% were G.
Among samples from Lebanon in a study, % were G. Within the religious groups, % of Catholic Maronites were G, % of 17 Greek Catholics, 5% of 60 Greek Orthodox, % of 26 Sunni Muslims, % of 16 Shiite Muslims and 0% of 9 Druze men.
In 29 samples from a study among the Druze in Lebanon, none were G in contrast to significant percentages of G among them in Syria and Israel.
Of samples taken among Arabs of Oman, 2% were G.
Among samples taken in Palestine % were G.
In 72 samples taken in Qatar, % were G. All were G2a (P15+).
Among 22 samples taken in Saudi Arabia in a study, % were G. In another study from , of Saudi samples, % were G1 and % G2.
Syrian Arab Republic
Among samples taken in Syria, % were G.
In another study of Syria, % of samples were G. In yet another study, % of 87 Syrian samples were G.
In another study, among 26 samples taken among the Druze in Syria 14% were G.
Among samples from Turkey in a study, % were G. The G1/G1a samples were found only among the northeastern Turkey samples. The single G2b* was found in Kars Province in the far northeast. Of the % G total, the G samples were found in each of the following subgroups: (a) G2b*(M+ M) n=1; (b) G1* (M+) n=1; (c) G1a (P20+) n=4; (d) G2a* (P15+) n=37; (e) G2a1 (P16+) n=5; and (f) G2b (M+) n=1. A study retested the same samples and found that within those listed G2a* (P15+) men, 10 were G2a3a (M)
A study found that in the west central Turkish towns of Foça and İzmir, 3% of 89 samples were G2a3a (M+) and an additional 4% were unspecified other types of G.
A study that sampled ethnic Armenians in eastern Turkey found no G1 (M) among men. But 2% of samples at Sasun were G2a1 (P16) with no P16 found at Lake Van. In contrast, G2a (P15) but not G2a1 was found in 8% of Lake Van and 11% of Sasun men.
Among 87 Kurmanji-speaking Kurds in southeastern Turkey in a study, % were found to be G. And among 27 Zazaki-speaking Kurds in the same area, % were G.
A doctoral dissertation that sampled men in four towns in central Turkey found 4 of 49 men at "town 1" were G2, 1 of 30 at "town 2", and none of 31 and 30 men respectively at "town 3" and "town 4" were G2. However, the author only applied prediction software to STR samples to determine the haplogroups. He concluded that the genetic diversity found suggests "multiple ancestral populations contributed to the genetic make-up of the area." One G2 man had known origins in northeastern Turkey.
United Arab Emirates
In samples taken in the United Arab Emirates, % were G. The majority were of the G1 type.
In 62 samples taken in Yemen, % were G. All were G2a (P15+).
In another study that concentrated on the island of Soqotra, none of 63 samples was G.
In another study among 20 Jewish Yemenis, 5% were G2a (P15+) and another 5% were G1 (M+). These men were apparently then living in Israel. A study of Jewish men found 0% of 74 Jewish men from Yemen were haplogroup G.
Caucasus Mountains Region
Among samples taken in Armenia for a study, 11% were G. And a study. found 11% of 57 Armenian samples were G1 and 11% G2a. A study found that none of Armenian samples were G2a1 (P16), but 2% of men in the Ararat Valley in the west and 1% of 96 men at Gardman in the east were G1 (M). Much more of G2a (P15) but not G2a1 was found, totalling 9% of the Ararat Valley men and % of Gardman men.
A study that concentrated on Jewish men found 21% of 57 Jewish men from Armenia were haplogroup G. Note that Jews in Armenia are mostly recent Askenazi and Georgian.
Among 72 samples taken in Azerbaijan 18% were G.
In a study that concentrated on the Talysh of the southern tip of Azerbaijan, 3% of 40 samples were found to be G.
A study that sampled Jews from Azerbaijan found 16% of 57 men were haplogroup G.
Among 61 samples taken in Georgia (), 30% were G. Among 77 samples taken in Georgia (), 31% were G. Georgia has the highest percentage of G among the general population recorded in any country. Among 66 samples taken in Georgia (), % were G2a (P15+). Of this % figure, % were G2a3a (M+), and the remainder were unspecified other types of G2a.
Most of states worldwide recognize Abkhazia and South Ossetia as part of Georgia. In Abkhazia 55% of 60 samples were found to be G as listed in a presentation by Khadizhat Dibirova. In a study, 47% of Abkhazians were found G2a. In South Ossetia 48% of 10 samples were found G2a. G1 was absent from both locations. Another study found among 58 Abkhazians that 12% were G2a1a (P18), 21% were G2a3b1 (P) and 24% other G2a (P15)
In a study of Jewish men, % of 62 Jewish men from Georgia were haplogroup G.
Russian Federation (Caucasus Region)
The G concentrations at Alagir and Digora represent the highest reported concentrations of G in any locale in the world. Though not stated in the studies, most of these were likely typical G2a1a type of G based on corresponding STR marker values.
The reported high G concentration among the Shapsugs of the far northwestern Caucasus represents the highest percentage of G among any group worldwide. This is the highest percentage of G in a single population in the world slightly higher than among the Madjars of Kazakhstan.
Note: The study by Yunusbaev () showed the tiny population of Northeast Caucasian language familyAndic-speakingChamalal to be 19% (N=5/27) G2a-P15, and all of this was an unknown sub-clade of G2a-P15 listed as "G2c" (currently classified as G2b)which was not defined in when this study was conducted (no SNP testing was done for true G2b-M). Since this study tested only G-M and G2a-P15, it is possible that this sub-clade may actually be G2a1-P16, since a number of the likely G haplotypes from Daghestan are actually G2a1-P He also reported that 12% (N=76) of the Kumyks tested were G with that figure composed of 11% G2a (P15+) and 1% (1/76) listed as "G2c", which again at the time a sub-clade of G2a-P15, likely G2a1-P16).
In these Russian tabulations above (1) G2a3a-M man among the Avars and (1) G1-M man each found among Chechens and Adyghe were omitted to simplify the charts. Also, the Balanovsky study found 12% G2a3a-M among the Lezgins which are not included in the chart entry for them.
In Pashtuns from Afghanistan haplogroup G2b %.
These percentages of G were found in the following number of samples from China in a study: (a) The Uyghurs who live primarily in far northwestern China % of (b) The northern Han % of (c) The southern Han 0% of (d) Tibet 0% of (e) The Zhuang who live in southern China or Vietnam, 0% of (f) The Yao of southern China 0% of (g) In Manchuria or among the Manchus in northeastern China, 0% of (h) The Evenks who live principally along the border of northeastern China 0% of (i) The Oroqen of northeastern China 0% of (j) The Yi who live principally in southern China and who speak a Burmese language 0% of (k) The Tujia of central China, 0% of
A study that sampled five southern Chinese groups found the following percentages of G: (1) The Han less than 1% G in samples. (2) The Miao 0% of (3) The She 0% of (4) The Tujia 0% of (5) The Yao 0% of 
A study that concentrated on the island of Hainan off the southeastern Chinese coast found 0% G among men from various island aborigine groups.
A study that concentrated on the Mang of Yunnan Province in southern China found no G among 65 samples.
Another study that sampled Tibet found 0% G among samples
A study of northwestern China found G (M) in 2% of 41 Kazakhs; 2% of 31 Tajikes; and 2% of 23 Ozbeks. No G was found among Tu, Xibo, Mongolian, Tataer, Uighur, Yugu, Kirghiz, Russ, Dongxiang, Bao'an and Salar persons.
A study found only a few G samples among hundreds of samples around China of the majority Han population. The Han locales with single G samples were Liaoning in the northeast with one G2b (M) man, Henan in the east central area with one G2a1 (P16) and Henan again with one G2a (P15) man not M or P This same study found 2% of Uyghur were G2a (P15) but not M or P These were all in Xinjiang in the northwest. And among 62 Hui men from Ningxia in the north central area, % were G1 and % were G2a (P15) but not P16 or M No G at all found among Hui elsewhere or in Tibet ( samples) or among the Xibe, Hazak, Evenks, Bulang, Wa, Jing, Dai, Zhuang, Dong, Mulao, Buyi, Li, Maonan, Shui, Gelao, Miao, Yao, She, Bai, Hani, Jingpo, Lahu, Lisu Naxi, Yi, Tujia, Hui, Man or Kyrgyz men sampled at various locations.
In a newer genetic study, Y-DNA G-M was found in the genes of a few Han Chinese individuals from Ningxia province and Beijing.
In samples taken in India in a study, % were G. In a study covering mostly New Delhi and Andhra Pradesh 2% of samples were G.
In another study in that concentrated on southern Indian locations, less than 1% of samples was G in Tamil Nadu, and the G percentage in Andhra Pradesh was 1% of samples.
A study that sampled men within 25 diverse populations in India, only one man was G. This man was included in the samples labeled Kash. Pandit.
A study that sampled men within 77 diverse Indian populations found only one man in central India who was G.
Another study from found in samples from northern India that 4% were G. The authors found no G among 96 Bhargavas or 88 Chaturvedis (both Brahmins), but % of other Brahmins, % of Shia and % of Sunni samples were G.
In a study of men belonging to two tribal groups of Andhra Pradesh in southern India, as well as five caste groups from various parts of India, only one man in West Bengal was G.
In a study of Indian samples taken from among 36 populations and 18 castes, % were G. These were all G2a (P15+) men. In this study many of the G2a men were contained within the samples of the Dravidian upper caste where G persons comprised % of 59 samples.
In a study sampling 45 Cochin Jews from southern India, none were haplogroup G. The same study found % of 31 Bene Israel Jews from Mumbai were G.
In the YHRD database, among 44 samples taken among the AfridiPashtuns in Uttar Pradesh, northern India, 28 (64%) were found to belong to haplogroup G.
In a study of Muslims in India, in Uttar Pradesh in n. India % of Indian Sunni men were G as were 8% of Indian Shia there. In Andhra Pradesh in southern India, 8% of 25 Iranian Shia were G. Among the Dawoodi Bohra of west and south India, no G was found in 76 samples, as was the case among Mappla of southern India.
In a study of samples from various components of the Indian caste system, G was found in % of 64 GujaratBrahmins in the west and % there among 32 Maharashtra Brahmins and none among Gujarat Bhils. In the east, % of 27 Bihar Paswan were G, but none found among Bihar Brahmins and West Bengal Brahmins. In the central area, no G found among Uttar PradeshKols and Gonds, and among Madhya Pradesh Brahmins, Gonds and Saharia. In the north, % of 49 Punjab Brahmins were G and 2% of 51 J&K Kashmiri Pandists, but none found among J&K Kashmir Gujars or among Uttar Pradesh or Himachal Brahmins.
In 80 samples taken in Indonesia, 0% were G.
In another study confined to Western New Guinea none of samples were G.
In a study of the northwestern end of the island of New Guinea among samples from 13 populations none were G.
In another study confined to the island of Sumba no G was found among samples.
A study that gathered samples in Bali, 21 in western Indonesia and 55 in eastern Indonesia failed to find any G persons.
Of 33 samples taken in northern Iran, % were G. Of these 5 samples, 4 were G2a (P15+). And % of samples from the south of that country were G. In this latter location the percentage of G1 almost equaled the G2a percentage. The authors did not provide information about locations sampled.
Of 91 samples taken at unstated location(s) in northern Iran (), % were G.
Of 50 samples taken from the Mazandarani in northern Iran west of the Caspian Sea, 14% were G. Likewise of 50 samples from the Gilaki in the same area, 10% were G.
Of 50 samples taken from the Talysh along the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea in north central Iran, 2% were G.
Samples were taken in another study in Khuzestan Province of west central Iran, and 15% G found among 53 Bakhtiari in Izeh and 6% G among Arabs in Ahvaz.
In a study of Jewish men, there were no haplogroup G men among 49 men with Iranian origins.
In samples taken among the following groups or locations in Japan: Ainu, Aomori, Okinawa, Shizuoka, Tokushima and Kyushu 0% were G.
In another study, among 23 samples taken in Japan, none were G.
Two Kazakh tribes are believed to have the highest levels of Haplogroup G in the world. This is striking partly because most Kazakh males fall into C3.
A study of the Kazakh Madzhars (Madjars) in the Torgay area of Kazakhstan, % of 45 samples were G. This is the highest concentration of G reported anywhere in the world so far. All the samples were G1.
A limited study has found Haplogroup G-M (G1) among four out of five Argyns sampled in central Kazakhstan. The Argyns, who were previously known as the Basmyl, were first documented in the 6th century, residing in what is now the Xinjiang region of China.
In 75 samples taken in Korea in a study, 0% were G. Among another 85 samples also taken in in Korea, 0% were G. A study of 64 Korean samples, again found no G among them.
In 32 samples taken among Malays (presumably from Malaysia), % were G.
In samples taken in Mongolia, % were G. On 47 samples taken also in in Mongolia, 0% were G.
In samples taken in a study in 3 locations in Nepal, none were G. Also in Nepal among Tharus in Terai, no G was found in a study.
Of samples taken in Pakistan, % were G. This same study found the percentage of G among 96 samples from Pakistani Pathans was %; among 44 samples from Kalash men was % and among 97 samples from Burusho men was 1% all groups of northern Pakistan.
Among Pakistani samples gathered in another study, G2a (P15+) men represented % of the total. G1 (M+) men represented %, and G2b (M+) men were %.
Papua New Guinea
In a large study of Northern Island Melanesia within Papua New Guinea () none of samples was G. Most of these were Papuan-speaking persons.
In 46 samples taken in Papua New Guinea (), 0% were G.
In another study () 19 samples taken on the island of New Britain none were found to be G, and none of 52 samples in the Trobriand Islands were G. In this same study, on the mainland of Papua New Guinea none of samples were listed as G.
Russian Federation [Asian portion]
In a study, in Russia among 98 Altai samples, 1% were G. The Altai or Altay are a Turkic group overlapping Mongolia and south central Russia. In this same study among the Buryats, a Mongol people who live principally just north of Mongolia, % of 81 samples were G, and no G at all was found among 31 samples from the Evens who live principally in the far northeastern area of Russia.
In another study concentrating on the southern Siberian border region, going from west to east: (a) Of 92 samples from the Turkic Altaian-Kizhi, % G. (b) Of 47 samples from the Teleuts, 0% G. (c) Of 51 samples from the Turkic Shors 0% G. (d) Of 53 samples from the Turkic Khakassians, 0% G. (e) Of samples from the Mongolized Turkic Tuvinians, % G. (f) Of 36 samples from the Turkic Todjins, 0% G. (g) Of 53 samples from the Turkic Tofalars, 0% G. (g) Of 34 samples from Sojots, % G. (h) Of samples from the Mongol Buryats, % G. Much farther to the north among 50 Evenks, 0% G.
Another study covered primarily the northeastern area of Siberia where Yakuts and Yakut-speaking Evenks live. The authors did not test for G, but the report suggests the men all belonged instead to the haplogroups shown in the report.
A study concentrated on two populations of northwestern Siberia. Among 63 Mansi, 4% were G, and among Khanty none were G.
In a small study of 18 Siberian samples, none were G. In a study of the Altai Republic  among samples, % were G1 and %% were G2a.
In 91 samples taken in Sri Lanka in one study % were G.
In another study of Sinhalese men, none of 39 samples was G.
In samples taken in Taiwan, 0% were G.
Among 48 samples taken among Taiwanese aboriginals, none were G.
A study of 15 Jewish men from Uzbekistan found 0% were haplogroup G. This same study, however, referred to a mixture of studies in which 22% of other Uzbek Jewish men samples belonged to haplogroup G.
In 70 samples taken in Vietnam, 0% were G.
Among 55 samples taken in Albania in a study, % were G2a (P15+). None were G2a3a (M+). In a study, no G was found among sampled Gabel and Jevg men, but % of Gheg and % of Tosk were G (M+).
A survey of the general population of Austria based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from there in the YHRD database indicates % (n=16) of samples in the Tyrol and none of 66 samples from Vienna and % (n=1) at Graz are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Several additional samples are borderline for being G.
A study of DNA Project Oud-Hertgodom Brabant found that % of samples were haplogroup G2a among those with eastern Belgian ancestry. In that same year a study of Brabant men found the following G percentages in these locations: North Brabant %, Antwerp %, Campine %, Mechelen % and Flemish Brabant %.
In a study of men from "Belarus," less than 1% of samples was haplogroup G. A study had found that % of 68 Belarusians were G.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Among 81 Serbs in Bosnia, % were found to be G2a (P15+), and among 90 Croats in Bosnia none were G. And in this same study among 84 Bosnians % were G2a (P15+). In none of these groups was any G2a3a (M+) found.
In another study among 69 samples in Bosnia, % were G, and according to Serbian DNA Project in Herzegovina is high point of G2a haplogroup. .
In the big sample of Bulgarians of Karachanak % are G2a
Among 89 samples taken in Croatia in a study, % were G2a (P15+). In this same study, 29 samples were taken separately in the far eastern city of Osijek, and % were G2a (P15+). The G2a samples were also tested for G2a3a (M), and none was found.
In another study from , among samples from 5 Croatian mainland locations, % were G.
In yet another study from , among 99 samples on the Croatian mainland, less than 1% were G. On the island of Krk, among 74 samples, none were G; on the island of Brač 6% of 49 samples were G; on the island of Korčula, % of samples were G; and % of 91 samples on the island of Hvar were G.
In a study of RomaBayash men in Croatia, 10% of 96 men at Baranja in the east were G, but none of 55 men at Medjimurje in the north were G.
Among samples from the Czech Republic, % were G and were overwhelmingly G2a (P15+).
In another study, among 75 samples from Czechs, % were G2a (P15+). None of these was G2a3a (M+)
A survey of the general population of Denmark based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from there in the YHRD database indicates % (n=3) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. There are several additional samples that might be G.
A survey of the general population of Estonia based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from Tartu in the YHRD database indicates none are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Several additional samples are borderline for being G.
A study found 5% of 40 samples from Ostrobothnia (Osterbotten) in Finland were G.
A survey of the general population of Finland based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from there in the YHRD database indicates % (n=2) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
In a study, in 23 samples taken somewhere in France (), 0% were G, but % of 34 samples on the island of Corsica were G.
A study found that among 51 men in Provence southeastern France, 8% were G with none G2a3a (M+)
An approximation method based on use of STR markers from samples from Paris in the YHRD database indicates % (n=2) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. And in 99 similar samples from Strasbourg in the far northeast, 4% (n=4) are G.
A study of the Finistère area at the tip of Brittany in western France, less than % of men were G and were found only in the port towns.
A survey of the general population of Germany based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation method based on STR markers in samples in the YHRD database using the Athey haplogroup predictor indicates the following G percentages among samples from these German cities: (a) Freiburg in the southwest, samples of which % (n=19) are G; (b) Munich in the southeast, samples of which % (n=15) are G; (c) Chemnitz in the northeast. samples of which % (n=31) are G.
In 76 samples taken somewhere in Greece (), % were G. In 77 samples taken somewhere in Greece (), % were G.
In another study () % of 92 Greek samples were G. This % was composed of % G2a3a (M+) and the remainder other types of G2a.
In a study, among 57 men at Nea Nikomedeia 4% were G with none G2a3a (M+) and among 57 at Sesklo/Dimini 4% were G2a3a and additional unspecified G men were 2%. And on the Peloponnese, of 57 men in the area of Lerna/Franchtihi Cave, 4% were G2a3a and 2% other G.
Among samples () taken on the island of Crete, % were G. Among 57 samples taken on the Peloponnese, % were G. And at several mainland Greek sites, % were G.
Another study that focused on Crete (), found % of samples in the central part of the island were G, and that % of 64 samples on the eastern end were G.
A survey of the general population of Greenland based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from there in the YHRD database indicates none are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
In samples taken in Hungary, % were found to G, and all were G2a (P15+).
In another study, among 53 samples from Hungary, % were G2a (P15+). None of these were G2a3a (M+)
In a study of Hungarians, G2a (P15+) was found in 4%, and found also in 2% of Hungarian Roma. No G1 reported.
A survey of the general population of Iceland based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from there in the YHRD database indicates none are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
Among samples taken in all areas of Ireland, none were G. The actual figure in the population is certainly not zero because there are dozens of samples from Irish ancestry persons in various databases.
In a large study of 11 regions of peninsular Italy and Elba, % of samples were G. The authors did not sample the northwestern Milan area and the high mountains of the central north. The Val Badia samples in the far northeast of Italy had an atypical low 3% of 34 samples. The other areas all ranged 7% to 15% G. Elba had 11% of 95 samples as G.
A study of Italy had found % of 51 samples in Sicily; % of 37 samples in Calabria; % of 78 samples in Sardinia; and 10% of 50 samples in north central Italy were G.
In another samples taken in Sardinia % were G. The authors noted the percentage at the sampled sites in the north of the island were % G, in the central-eastern area % but only % in the southwestern area.
And another Sardinian study of males found % as G. Among a subgroup of these where geographical information was available, the percentage on the southeastern coast was %; on the northeastern coast % and % in the inland central area. This study indicated an unusual percentage of G men there with STR marker value of 23 at DYS—a percentage not seen in continental Europe where the 23 value is uncommon.
In another Sardinian study confined to towns in the northern sector of the island, 14% of samples were all found to be G2a (P15+) based only on a probability calculation. The G2 category as represented by P15 became G2a in the period in which this study was conducted. The men were predicted just "G2" in the study. But P15 (now G2a) was probably the intended category.
A study that sampled only northeastern Italy found % G2a (P15+) among 67 samples. None of these were G2a3a (M+).
A study that focused on the northeastern coast of Italy south of Venice, found among samples that % were G.
A study that concentrated on 19 upland areas in the Marches region of central Italy found % G among samples.
A study that concentrated on Sicily found among samples % were G. This % figure was divided into % G2a (P15+) and the remainder other types of G. There were notable high G2a percentages in Caccamo (25% of 16 samples), in Troina (% of 30 samples) and in Sciacca (% of 27 samples).
A study found 10% of 40 Albanian-speaking Arbëreshë men in Calabria, Italy were G. 
Among samples taken among Albanians in Kosovo, none were G.
A survey of the general population of Latvia based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from Riga in the YHRD database indicates none are definitively G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Several samples are possibly G.
A survey of the general population of Lithuania based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from Vilnius in the YHRD database indicates % (n=2) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. One additional sample is borderline for being G.
In a general study of Macedonia, % of 79 samples were G. This study also found among 57 Romani in Macedonia none were G. Another study sampled Albanians in Macedonia, % of 64 samples were G2a (P15+) but not G2a3a (M+).
In samples taken in Malta, 8% were G.
In 89 samples taken among the Turkic-speaking Gagauzes of southern Moldova % were G.
A survey of the general population of the Netherlands based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from there in the YHRD database indicates % (n=9) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
A survey of the general population of Norway based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from there in the YHRD database indicates % (n=3) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Several additional samples are borderline for being G.
Among 99 samples taken in Poland, 0% were found to be G.
Additional information is available in the form of approximations based on the Polish STR-marker samples in the YHRD database. The G samples were identified using the Athey haplogroup predictor. Among samples taken in the general population at Białystok in the northeast, % (n=1) were G. At this same locale among Belarusians % (n=1) of samples were G; among Old Believers none were G; among Tatars % (n=1) were G. In the northwest at Szczecin among samples 1% (n=1) was G. In the south at Krakow among samples, % (n=1) were G. In the southeast at Lublin among samples, % (n=1) were G.
In 60 samples taken in northern Portugal in a study, 12% were found to be G, and 9% of 78 samples in the south of the country were G in a study.
In a study, among samples taken in northern Portugal, % were G. In a study, % of Portuguese men at 18 locations were G. The highest percentage was recorded in Évora in the east central area (29 samples), and at the other extreme none found at Viseu (30 samples) and Beja (8 samples), north and south respectively of the other town.
In a Portuguese study that also included the Atlantic islands, % of samples in Madeira were G, and % of samples from the Azores were G. In northern Portugal, 5% of samples were G; in central Portugal % of samples were G; and 7% of samples in southern Portugal.
In a study of Portuguese Roma, of men sampled less than 1% was G. In a study of northeastern Portuguese Jews, % of 57 men from Trás-os-Montes were G as compared to % of 30 non-Jewish men from the same area.
In 97 samples taken among Hungarian-speaking Szeklers in Transylvania in Romania, % were found to G, and all were G2a (P15+).
In a more general survey of the Romanian population based on samples of STR markers in the YHRD database % (n=2) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. One additional sample is borderline for being G.
Russian Federation [European portion]
In a study, samples taken in three areas in the northernmost third of European Russia (ethnic Russians/Pomors), about 1% were G2a (P15+) and 0% G1. In samples from three areas in the central third of European Russia about 1% were G, with more G1 men than G2a found. In samples from two areas near the border with Latvia and Estonia 0% were G. In samples from Roslavl area near the border with Belarus, 0% were G. In samples from four areas near the border with the Ukraine about 1% were G2a and 0% G1. And in 90 samples from among the Kuban Cossacks in the south, % were G2a and 0% G1.
And in a study of samples presumably from western Russia (according to a map provided) % were G. In this same study among 68 Kalmyks (a people of Mongolian origin) who live near the Caspian Sea in the south of western Russia, none were G. In another study of the Kalmyks in the Russian Republic of Kalmykia the authors found 1% G among 99 samples.
Another study in  reported on samples from 12 locations in western Russia. Of these, % of the samples were G. The highest percentage was % of 42 samples in Orlovskaja Oblast, east of Belarus and north of the Ukraine.
In a study that sampled men of Chuvash origin, % were haplogroup G.
- Among samples taken in Belgrade, none were G (Peričić et al. ).
- Among samples taken, % were G (Mirabal et al. ).
Among 75 samples taken in Slovenia % were G. This % was composed of % G2a3a (M+) and % other types of G2a.
Among 24 samples taken in the northeastern corner of Spain in a study, % were G. In a larger study covering about mainland Spanish samples outside the Basque area, the average was about 5% G with the highest percentage recorded in Castilla-La Mancha (10%), and the lowest in parts of Andalusia and Castile (3%).
In a study, among samples taken in 5 populations in southern Spain, about 3% were G. This same study found in 3 populations in northwestern Spain among samples, about 7% were G, and in the northeastern quarter of Spain in two populations none of 52 samples were G.
Among samples from Basque people in Spain in a study, % were G. Of these were living in the three Basque provinces. All were G2a (P15+). Another study found 0% of samples in Basque country were G.
In a study only of Cantabria just west of the Basque Autonomous Community in northwestern Spain, % of samples from 3 groupings were G.
A study of samples from the Pyrenees Mountains in the northeast found almost 2% were G.
A study only of Andalusia in southern Spain found that % of Andalusians were G. And of 68 separate samples specifically from the Pedroches Valley (Valle de los Pedroches) in Andalusia % were G.
In the Balearic Islands 6% of 62 samples in Majorca were G; 0% of 37 samples in Minorca were G, but 13% of 54 samples in Ibiza were G in a study.
Among samples taken in seven regions of Sweden in a study, % were G. The authors also found 0% G in 38 samples from nomadic Saami men of Sweden. In a study, which totaled Swedish samples, no G was found in the regions of Norrland in the north and Götaland on the southern end. But in the central Svealand area % of samples were G. If Stockholm is excluded, the percentage increases to % among samples. While specific Svealand locations were typically 0–1% G, Uppsala on the east central coast showed % but based on only 33 samples.
A survey of the general population of Switzerland based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers of samples from there in the YHRD database indicates % (n=15) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor. An additional sample is borderline for being G.
A survey of the general population of the Great Britain for G based on testing of SNPs is lacking, but an approximation based on the STR markers in the YHRD database indicates % (n=8) of samples from London are G and 1% (n=1) of 97 samples from Birmingham are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
Among 92 samples taken in the Ukraine, % were found G2a (P15+). None of these belonged to G2a3a (M+).
An approximation of SNP results based on the STR markers of samples from Kyiv in the YHRD database indicates % (n=2) are G using the Athey haplogroup predictor.
Australia & Pacific Islands
Among 33 samples taken among Australian Aborigines of Australia, 0% were G. 
Among 77 samples taken in the Cook Islands none were G.
Among samples taken in Fiji none were listed as G.
Among 9 samples taken in Niue none were G.
In 48 samples taken in the Philippines 0% were G.
Among 61 samples taken in Samoa none were G.
Among 30 samples gathered in the Solomon Islands none were G.
Among 6 samples taken in Tokelau, none were G.
Among 29 samples taken in Tonga, none were G.
Among samples taken in Tuvalu none were G.
Wallis and Futuna
Among 50 samples taken in East Futuna, none were G.
North America and the Caribbean
Among men sampled in Cuba, % were G.
Among persons in the United States of America from a wide variety of locales, % were found to be G. When restricted to those with European ancestry the percentage rises to about 4%. African-Americans were about 1% G, and Native Americans %.
In a study of 48 Apalai men from the Amazon in Brazil none were G.
In a study of men from 4 Native American groups in French Guiana none were G.[why?]
In a study of 28 Machiguenga men from south inland Peru none were G.[why?]
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- ^ abcdefghijklmnopqr"YHRD Database Site".[verification needed]
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- ^ abcdefShen P, Lavi T, Kivisild T, etal. (September ). "Reconstruction of patrilineages and matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli populations from Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequence variation". Human Mutation. 24 (3): – doi/humu PMID S2CID
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In human genetics, Haplogroup G (M) is a Y-chromosomehaplogroup. It is a branch of Haplogroup F (M89), and is theorized to have originated, according to the latest thinking, in the Near East or Southern Asia, likely in the region that is now northern India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The haplogroup began to spread with the NeolithicAgricultural Revolution, perhaps with the appearance of the early horse nomads of the Eurasian steppe.
Haplogroup G has an overall low frequency in most populations but is widely distributed within the Old World in Europe, Western Asia, northeastern Africa, Central Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia (including parts of China and the Malay Archipelago). It is most frequent in the Caucasus (found at over 60% in ethnic North Ossetian males and ~30% in Georgian males). In Europe, haplogroup G is found at ~5% in central and southern sections of the continent. It has relatively high concentrations in northern Sardinia (over 25%) and the Tyrol region of Austria (about 15%). In the British Isles, Scandinavia, and the Baltic countries it is uncommon; Britain and Norway for example at 1–2%.
In Southern Asia, haplogroup G is found at a rate of 10% to 20% among Iranians, Pashtuns (ethnic Afghans), and Kalash, and at a lesser percentage among some other populations in Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka, including the Tamils. In Central Asia, G is found in small percentages in a belt extending from the Caucasus through the Central Asian steppes out to the Uyghurs of Xinjiang Province in western China.
The initial distribution of haplogroup G in Europe may reflect a migration of agriculture-bringing Anatolian people into the Mediterranean Basin. The haplogroup may also have been brought by invading Sarmatians, Alans and Jasz (all descendant groups of the 'Iranian' Scythians), which is a good fit with the historically attested spread of these peoples across the Central Asian steppe, from Xinjiang in the east to Iberia and Tunisia in the west, with a branch (the Sakas) entering the northwest of the Indian subcontinent at the start of the first millennium. Around 10% of Ashkenazi Jewish males have haplogroup G, and the Jewish diaspora to Europe from the Middle East and the Arab Moor occupation of Spain are two other probable routes into Europe for certain types of G.
Three commonly occurring subgroups of Haplogroup G have been identified so far: G1 (M), G2a (P15) and G2c (M). G3 (P) exists but is rarely found in the G population. The highest reported concentration of G1 is in Iran, with next most frequent concentrations in neighboring countries. G2 represents the majority of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in all countries, and a recently discovered subcategory (likely to be called G2a3) accounts for a high percentage of G in all sampled countries.
A clade of closely related Ashkenazi Jews represent virtually all G2c persons, with just three other G2c haplotypes having been reported so far: one Turk from Kars in northeast Turkey near Armenia, one Pashtun, and one Burusho in Pakistan. The extreme rarity of G2c in northeast Pakistan could indicate that G2c in this area originates outside the region and was brought there in the historic period, perhaps from further west (this area was part of both the Achaemenid Persian Empire, conquered by Alexander the Great, and then formed a part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom). These two reported Pakistani G2c haplotypes are quite divergent from the Ashkenazi Jewish clade, and therefore do not at all indicate a recent common origin. The Turkish G2c is somewhat closer, but not identical. It remains to be seen if testing will reveal G2c haplotypes in other populations — this is some indication that G2c occurs at low levels in the Near East. Early reports that Ashkenazi G men were all G1 are now proven incorrect. There are also Jewish genetic clades within G2 and G1 whose members are not closely related to the G2c men. All G2c men tested so far have a rare null value for the DYS marker, (a missing "T" allele of the DYS palindromic STR), the result of a RecLOH event, a finding not yet seen among most other G haplotypes. Among Jews worldwide, haplogroup G comprises between 10–20% of the population. Though forming some recognizable clades, Jews today comprise a small percentage of the total number of G men worldwide.
This is a synthesis of the data about the internal phylogeny of haplogroup G from the latest upcoming studies:
(Temporarily embargoed till publication)
G2 Haplogroup distributions in Turkey
A Stanford study surveyed distributions of Haplogroup G in Turkey. Page two of the study shows a map of the regions.
Tabular results for subgroup G2:
<googlespreadsheet style="width: %; height: px">p4Yr_buv2d7K7Rbi_cNw</googlespreadsheet>
- Haplogroup G SNP project
- Some Information and Theories on Haplogroup G
- Cinnioglu, Cengiz, et al., "Excavating Y-Chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia," Human Genetics,, vol. , pp. –
- DiGiacomo, F. et al. "Clinal Patterns of Human Y Chromosomal Diversity in Continental Italy and Greece , vol 23, pp. – [Lists in table 1 G2 percentages in small samples in various towns]
- Firasat, Sadaf et al., "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan," European Journal of Human Genetics () Vol. 15, p. – http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n1/full/a.html
- Nasidze, Ivan et al., "Testing Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the Y Chromosome," Human Genetics, , vol. , pp. –
- Nasidze, Ivan et al., "Concomitant Replacement of Language and mtDNA in South Caspian Populations of Iran," Current Biology, , vol. 16, pp. –
- Nasidze, Ivan et al., "Genetic Evidence concerning the Origins of South and North Ossetians," Annals of Human Genetics, , vol. 68, pp. –
- Nasidze, Ivan et al., "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromsome Variation in the Caucasus," Annals of Human Genetics, , vol. 68, pp –
- Nasidze, Ivan et al., "MtDNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups," Annals of Human Genetics, , vol. 69, pp. –
- Qamar, Raheel, "Y Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan," American Journal of Human Genetics, , vol. 70(5), pp. –
- Regueiro, M., et al., "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration," Human Heredity,, vol. 61, pp. –
- Sahoo, Sanghamitra, "A Prehistory of Indian Y Chromosomes: Evaluating Demic Diffusion Scenarios," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., , vol. (4), pp. –
- Sengupta, Sanghamitra, "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists," American Journal of Human Genetics, , vol. 78(2), pp. –
- Zei, Gianna, et al., "From Surnames to the History of Y Chromosomes: the Sardinian Population as a Paradigm," European Journal of Human Genetics, , vol. 11, pp.
|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups[χ 1][χ 2]|
|I||J||LT[χ 5]||K2[χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a[χ 7]||K2b[χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e[χ 9]|
|K-M[χ 10]||K2b1[χ 11]||P[χ 12]|
|NO||S[χ 13]||M[χ 14]||P1||P2|
G2a2a1b-FGC, formed around ybp and split a millennium later in subgroups. Is found among the Early Neolithic Farmers of Halberstadt-Sonntagsfeld in Germany 7,, cal ybp and in archaeologic find (klei10) in Kleitos Greece ybp.
G2a2a1b1-FGC, formed around , in Dravidian-speaking Brahui cattle herders and the Punjabi-speaking Pakistani (Khan).
G2a2a1b2-FGC, TMRCA ca ybp.
G2a2a1b2a-FGC, Welsh (R.)
G2a2a1b2b-BY, Welsh (J.)
G2a2a2-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.
G2a2a2a-Z, Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp. TMRCA ybp, Turkey and Algeria.
G2a2a2a1-B, Uzbek Jew.
G2a2a2a2-Z, Algeria Arab.
G2a2a2b-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.
G2a2a2b1-BY, Y, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, North Africa Berber, Bahrain.
G2a2a2b1a-Y, Z, France.
G2a2a2b2-Z, TMRCA ybp, Ukrainians.
G2a2a2b3-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp
G2a2a2b3a-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.
G2a2a2b3a1~Z, Romanian (Tug.).
G2a2a2b3a2~BY, Greece (Pap.).
G2a2a2b3b~Z, English (Tur.).
G2a2a2b3c~Z, Z, TMRCA ybp, Puerto-Ricans from Spain.
G2a2b-L30/PF/S, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, is the largest of the two subgroups of G2a in what later became the first Neolithic areas of Anatolia. In the Neolithic this clade is found in 60% of the Europeans, nowadays in only 5% of them. G-L30* is in Greece and Croatia and in some Uralic-speaking Mordvins from Russia. G-L30 is divided into two clusters:
A. G2a2b1-M, entered Europe along the shores of the Mediterranean,
B. G2a2b2-P, spread through the Danube valley to western Europe as far as in the United Kingdom, and south to the Iberian Peninsula and the western Mediterranean coasts and islands, where these two clusters meet. (21)
The predominantly Southern European, Mediterranean and Levant groups.
G2a2b1-M/PF, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, originated in Turkey ybp, and entered Italy probably about 5, ybp. This is the clade of Asia Minor and Southern Europe. Of the G men in Iraq, Turkey, Greece and the Balearic Islands, about 50% belong to this clade; in Georgia, 25% (G2a1a is almost 8%); in Italy, 20%; in Spain and the Netherlands, 15%; in Switzerland, 8%; Iran, 6%; and in Poland and UK, 4%.
Split in three groups presumably nearly at the same time probably in the Upper Euphrates Valley at the end of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), when the climate became much hotter and drier around ybp.
G2a2b1* is found in a Lebanese chistian.
G2a2b1-M/PF, Mediterranean, Greeks, Italians, Lebanese, Georgians, Armenians, Azerbaijans, Turks. Austrians
G2a2b1a1a-L14/U16, age 8, years, in Middle Easterners, Italians, Sardinians, English, French, Netherlands, Qatari.
G2a2b1a1b-Z/Y, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Turkey.
G2a2b1a1b1-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Turkey.
G2a2b1a1b1a-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp. Germany, Italian.
G2a2b1a1b2-L, PH, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Turkey.
G2a2b1a1b2a-Y, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Turkey (Armenians, Swiss, and Germans (?)).
G2a2b1a2-M, Turkey (Armenians), Pakistan (Pashtuns), Italy, U.K..
G2a2b1b-PF, age 8, ybp, Middle East, Sardinia, Kazakhstan (originally from Ukraine), Palestinians and Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews.
G2a2b1b1-PF/PF, age 7, years, in Iran, Kazakhstan (Russia), Druzes, Italians. Sardinians, in the Netherlands, Ashkenazi Jews.
G2a2b1b1a1a~PF, Sultans Ba'Alawis of Yemen, Sultans of Siak on Sumatra-Indonesia, Richard III of England, so probablement les Maisons de Plantagenet et d'Anjou.
G2a2b1b1a2a1-Z, Malta (?)
G2a2b1b1a2a2-S, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.
G2a2b1d-CTS/S, Palestinian territory.
The predominantly central and western European groups
G2a2b2-CTS, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, most of the Europeans of west and central Europe belong to this clade. It is also found among the Brahmins in India. It probably emerged from a population of hunters and gatherers in the Russian steppes. (22)
G2a2b2a-P, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, the majority of the G men in Europe, belong to his subgroups. Low rates are found in Iran, Pakistan and in the Middle East. It has also been seen among the Brahmins, in India and with an certain haplotype in Ashkenazi Jews. (23)
G2a2b2a1-L/S, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, the whole group with clades is the dominant G group in Europe, present in almost 80%, of G men. The first ones came into Europa probably around 8, ybp, archaeological find, ybp of Koros neolitic in Törökszentmiklos Tiszapüspöki Karanycs, Hungary. Their number is now approaching 7% of the population in some European countries, however the average is about 3%. It is present in small amounts in some parts in France at 5% and in Italy it reaches 9%. There is an Ashkenazi cluster in northwestern Europe. G-L* are in The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, the Carpathian Mountains, in Palestinians, Saudi Arabia and in the Dravidan speaking Brahii. (25)
G2a2b2a1a-PFarchaeolgical find of Baden culture in Budapest Hungary ybp; a Rajput in India.
G2a2b2a1a1-PF is 10, years old
G2a2b2a1a1a1-U1/Z, is presumably 10, years old. The early years of U1 seem to have been during the hunter-gatherer period, before historical records were kept, so little can be said about it until scientists are able to identify U1 subgroups in ancient skeletons from that time period. The more recent aspects of the historical period are covered in the discussions of the subgroups.
The Hazara DYS=15 occurs within the tribal group consisting of Shia Muslim men of central Afghanistan who are distinctive for their heavy intermingling with the C3 Genghis Khan, group which undoubtedly came to Afghanistan with the Mongol invasion. It is possible that the Mongol invasion brought these men from somewhere in southwest Russia, since other tribal groups in Afghanistan lack similar G members in the sampling. G2a2b2a1a1a-U1* is still in Italy.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a-L13/U13/L78, is about 10,, years old. In an archaeological find in Barcin Höyük N-W Turkey dated about ybp. In its subclades it is found among Germans, French, Swiss, northern Italians, UK an Ukraine, Belarus, Western Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia, and in small amounts outside Europe in Iranian Azeri, Arabs, Druze of the Levant, Palestinians in Lebanon and Syria and Sephardic Jews.
The Ashkenazi Jews have DYS=13 and often DYS=9 as well.
G2a2b2a1a1a1-L13/U13/S13* in Armenia and Italy.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1-CTS/Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, they most likely came in Western Europe in the Bronze Age, together with the R1a and RIb population. Most known samples come from Europe. The percentage in G samples in Europe is: Germany 16%; Italy 11%; the Netherlands 10%; France 10%; Poland 9%; Spain 9%; Ireland 6%; England 5%; Switzerland 4%. Some Arabs from Bahrain, Persian Jews from Afghanistan and Morocco berbers.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a-FGC/Z, FGC/Z, 4, years old, has a heavy concentration in Europe.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1-FGC/Z, has a heavy concentration in Europe also in the Netherlands, in Cyprus, Bahrain, Arabs, Algerians, Berbers in Morocco. (Mehri).
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a-Z, formed 3, ybp, TMRCA ybp, Germany, Swiss (Beyeler), Italy, Italian Alps (Herbet), Cypress. Poland, Jews, Hispanics, Syrians, Kurdish, and Persians.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1-L, Z, formed ybp. TMRCA ybp, Turkeys, UK.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA , Germans, Austrians, Dutch.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1-Z formed and TMRCA ybp, Germans.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a2a-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA , UK.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a5-Z. formed ybp, TMRCA ybp
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a5a-Y. formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Circassian.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a5a1-Y. formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, German.
G2a2b2a1a1a1a1b-Z. formed ybp., Spain, England, Turkey (Jews).
G2a2b2a1a1a1a2-Z, British Isles, Poland.
G2a2b2a1a1a2-L, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, includes half of the West Caucasians, like the Adyghes, Abkhazians, Circassians, Kipchaks, Abazins and Karbardinians and Georgians.
G2a2b2a1a1a2a-L/L/L, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, they most likely came in Western Europe in the Bronze Age, together with the R1a population, now in Russia (Kabardinians), in the northwestern Caucasus, primarily among the Adyghians, Ossetians, Tetchens and Senkelens of Central Russia and the Urals, and in Hungary.
G2a2b2a1a1a2a2-FGC, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Belgians.
G2a2b2a1a1a2a2a-S, formed ybp
G2a2b2a1a1a2a2a1-FGC, Belgians, formed ybp.
G2a2b2a1a1a2a2a2-Z, Kabardinians, formed ybp.
G2a2b2a1a1a2a2b-Z, Russians, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp
G2a2b2a1a1a2a2c-FGC, Belgians, formed ybp.
G2a2b2a1a1a2b-PH, years old, Georgians, Armenians Iranian Azeris, UK and some Germans.
G2a2b2a1a1b-L/S/CTS/PF/Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, This is the largest European subgroup, to which half of the European G, belongs. It seems that G-L, which is one of the most "European" of haplogroups, spread out from Western Anatolia (where it's found in small numbers) to the Danube Basin with the First Farmers, around ybp. So far, the earliest branches of L are found in Italy and the Netherlands. The Anatolian and Aegean Ls are more "derived" (further down the tree in G-Z), This group is distributed as follows: Tirol 80% of the G samples; Switzerland 75%; Spain, France and Germany 60%; UK 52%, the Netherlands and Italy 44%. They formed the first wave of farmers entering Europe who started the Neolithic, recognizable by the LBK culture.
G2a2b2a1a1b-L*, an American of Dutch origin in Gelderland.
G-L frequenties in Europe. (24a)
G2a2b2a1a1b1-Z/CTS, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, archaeolgical find of Baden culture in Budapest Hungary BCE.
G2a2b2a1a1b1a-CTS/Z,, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, is found throughout Western and Central Europe, and especially in Germanic countries.
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1-Y/Z, is formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a-AMM/CTS/Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp., Norway, Denmark.
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1-L43/S, formed ybp, TMRCA ybb.
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a-L42, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp. Spain, is found in a Trypillian outlier individual. This branch might have been assimilated by Proto-Indo-Europeans through contact with the Late Trypillian people who moved to the Pontic Steppe and merged with Yamna tribes. It would later have spread around Germanic and Celtic countries alongside haplogroup R1b.
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a1-Y/Z, Y/Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp. Italia, Switserland, Deutschland, Croatia, Finland.
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a1a-Y, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp. Switserland.
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a1c, archaeologic find CE, München Bavaria.
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a2a-CTS, Z, formed ybp, TMRCA 3, ybp, Archaelogical finds in Hallstatt culture DA Czech Republic ca ybp
G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a2a1-S, formed 3, ybp
G2a2b2a1a1b1b-S, Italy, France, Poland (nob.), Germany, Netherlands (Gelre, Limb).
G2a2b2a1a1c-CTS, originated about 10,5 KY ago somewhere in Anatolia or the Fertile Crescent. Spread soon in all directions. Is found in archeological remains dated 8, ybp in Barcin-Höyük, Northwest Anatolia, near the Sea of Marmara. Is now divided in several subgroups in a quarter of all Arabian G, Saudi. It spread across North Africa and it's found among 13% of Berbers from Jerba Island, Tunisia, Ashkenazi Jews. In Africa. In Europe in Ashkenazi Jews and in Romania, Italy, Sardinia, Iberia. France, Scandinavia and in a Dutchman. There is a small group in the UK Islands, which has a common ancestor from the Middle Ages. and at least in a Han Chinese man from Beijing,
G2a2b2a1a1c1-Z, N. Italy, Denmark, a tiny number of Ossetians and a Han Chinese from Beijing, and a group in Gao, Mali (Africa) problaby from Morocco.
G2a2b2a1a1c1a-CTS/Z The earliest archaelogical find is from Chalcolithic Bulgaria around ybp, the TMRCA of all G-Zs today is at ybp. Now in Greece, Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, UK., Sardinians and in Ashkenazi Jews.
G2a2b2a1a1c1a1-CTS, formed probably around ybp.
G2a2b2a1a1c1a1a-L, England, Ireland.
G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1a-FGC/Z, Sierra Leone, n.e. Europe (Ashkenazi Jews), Romania, U.K.
G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1a1a-FGC/FGC, Ashkenazi Jews.
G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1a1b-FGC, exist for abt 1, yrs, Ashkenazi Jews.
G2a2b2a1a1c3a2-Z, Sardinians, French, Sephardim, Ashkenazim and Araite jews, Christian Arabs from Syria and Lebanon, Berbers, Mende people from Sierra Leone, Ossetians, and a Han Chinese from Manchuria.
G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b2c~Z. Italian and Irish.
G2a2b2a1a1c2-FGC formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, formed, Han chinese (probably Hui origin)
G2a2b2a1a1c2a-L formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, England, Poland (nob.), Slovakia.
G2a2b2a1a1c2b-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Saudi Arabia.
G2a2b2a1a1c2b1-Z. formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Saudi Arabia.
G2a2b2a1a1c2b2-Zformed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Saudi Arabia.
G2a2b2a1a1c3-PF, split drectly off from G-CTS so originated about 10,5 KY ago, Western Europe, Norwegians, France, Italy (M de P.)
G2a2b2a1a1c3a2~Z Italy, Ireland.
G2a2b2a1a1e-Z, Middle Easterners, years.
G2a2b2a1b-Z, years. Ukrainians, Iraqi Jews.
G2a2b2a1h-S, Iberians, years.
G2a2b2a2-M, Greeks, Spanish, present in the Medieval Jewish population of Spain in the 14th century.
G2a2b2a3-Z, archaeological finds have been made in the Anatolian Neolithic from Barcin Höyük in Northwest Turkey from c. BP ( BCE) and the Linear Ceramic Culture - LBK - from Scheltz, Austria, BP ( BCE.
And nowadays in Armenians, Syrians, Al-Muntafiq Tribe of Southern Iraq (Hellenistic Greeks from the Seleucid Empire?) and Arma people an ethnic group in subsaharan Africa in the Niger River, descended from Moroccan and Andalusi invaders of the 16th century.
G2a2b2a3a-Z. Archaeological find in a sample dated BP c. cal BCE from the El Toro Cave in Antequera near Málaga, South Spain. This Andalusian Early Neolithic culture is thought to have arrived just prior to the Cardial technology.
G2a2b2a4-Z, formed , TMRCA , Brahui, Kalash and Punjabis.
G2a2b2a4a-Z. formed TMRCA, TMRCA , Iraqis and Indians.
G2a2b2a4a1-Z. Lyengar Brahmins and Bhargava in India.
G2a2b2a4b-Z Punjabi and Kalash.
G2a2b2a5~ M, Pakistan (Kalash).
G2a2b2a6~ Z, Sardinian Italy.
G2a2b2b-PF, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, was under the earliest Anatolian Aceramic Farmers of Boncuclu, is found in the following cultures: LBK, Iberia Late Neolithic, Varna Eneolithic, Iberia Chalcolithic, Nuraghic of Sardinia, a Hungarian Scythian of BCE, a Viking Age Sweden from CE, Musawi Sayyid from Iraq, Armenians, Southeastern Turks, and Southwest Iranians, Arabs, Crimean Tatars, a Kabardinian, a Moksha, a couple of Armenians, non-Ashkenazi Jews, a Central Greek, Cretans, Sardinians (here it is 25% of the G), Corsicans, a Hungarian, a German, a Brit, and in the Netherlands.
G2a2b2b1-F, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.
G2a2b2b1a1-F, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Epipaleolithic Central Anatolia Boncuklu 10, ybp.
G2a2b2b1a1a-PF, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Chaloclithic samples from Su Crocefissu Roma ybp and El Mirador Cave, Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain, ± ybp, Hungary ± 40 ybp ; nowadays in Italia, Sardinia and Germany.
G2a2b2b1a1a1-PF, PF, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Sweden in butial grounds in Sigtuna, 10 to 12th century.
G2a2b2b1a1a2 Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Italia and Netherlands.
G2a2b2b1a1b~-F, formed ybp, TMRCA yb.
G2a2b2b1a1b1a F, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.
G2a2b2b1a1b1a2 ~F, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Netherlands.
G2a2b2b2-PH, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Romania Early Neolithic, Armenia, Iran, Palestina.
G2a2b2b2a-CTS, PH, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Poland.
G2a3b Former notation for what is now G2a2b2
G2b-M, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.
G2b1-M, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Lebanese; in subgroups is found in Lachin, Nagorno-Karabakh, in an Armenian noble family, in native Syrian Christians and their Lebanese Maronite descendants, in Italy, Sicily, Spain, Saudis of Khorasani origin, Kars Province Turkey, as well as among Ashkenazi Jews and Pashtuns in Pakistan where it reaches till % in who claim Israelite ancestry and to be descended from a regular Jewish "Benjaminite" community in Khroasan (Eastern Greater Iran) who converted to Islam at the time of the Mongol Invasion in CE.
G2b1a-Y, BY, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.,
G2b1a1-M, M, formed ybp, TMRCA yb, Italian. Pakistani, Afghans.
G2b1a2-Y, FGC, formed 4, ybp, TMRCA ybp., Ashkenazim, Baltics and Austria.
G2b1a2*-Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Germany, Israel.
G2b1a2a1-FGC/Y/Z. Lithuanian Jewish and Belarus who are probably come from France. TMRCA of the parent ybp.
G2b1a2a2-Y/Z, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Israel.
G2b1a2a2a-Z, BY, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Roumenia.
G2b1a2a2b-Y, (BY?), formed ybp, TMRCA ybp. Ukraine
G2b1a2b-Y, FGC, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.
G2b1a2b1-Y, FGC, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Ukraine.
G2b1a2b1a-FGC, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Germany, Latvia.
G2b1a2b1b-FGC,formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, Poland.
G2b1a2b2-Y, BY, Y
G2b1b2c-Z, Z, Z,.
G2b2-FGC, Italy, Armenians in Turkey, .
G2b2a Z, an archeological find in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, 9, cal.BP, now in North Jordan and South Syria, but, Southern Syrians. Jordanians, Italians.
Wezmeh Cave Zagros, Iran
The oldest archaeologically find, which has been determined to belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup G, is a man who had G2b. His remains are found in the Wezmeh Cave in the Zagros Mountains, the far west of Iran. He lived 9, cal.BP. He most likely had brown eyes, relatively light skin, and black hair, although Neolithic Iranians carried reduced pigmentation-associated alleles in several genes and derived alleles at 7 of the 12 loci showing the strongest signatures of selection in ancient Eurasians.
Map haplogroup g
.Haplogroup G (mtDNA)
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