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Dow Jones Industrial Average

American stock market index

"Dow Jones index" redirects here. For other indices, see Dow Jones.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), Dow Jones, or simply the Dow (), is a price-weighted measurement stock market index of 30 prominent companies listed on stock exchanges in the United States.

Although the DJIA is one of the oldest and the most commonly followed equity indices, many professionals consider the Dow to be an inadequate representation of the overall U.S. stock market compared to broader market indices such as the S&P or Russell Index. The DJIA includes only 30 large companies and is a price-weighted index, unlike later stock indices which use market capitalization. Furthermore, the DJIA does not use a weighted arithmetic mean.[4][5][6][7]

The value of the index is the sum of the stock prices of the companies included in the index, divided by a factor which is currently (as of September&#;[update]) approximately The factor is changed whenever a constituent company undergoes a stock split so that the value of the index is unaffected by the stock split.

First calculated on May 26, ,[2] the index is the second-oldest among the U.S. market indices (after the Dow Jones Transportation Average). It was created by Charles Dow, the editor of The Wall Street Journal and the co-founder of Dow Jones & Company, and named after him and his business associate, statistician Edward Jones. The word industrial in the name of the index initially emphasized the heavy industry sector, but over time stocks from many other types of companies have been added to the DJIA.

The index is maintained by S&P Dow Jones Indices, an entity majority-owned by S&P Global. Its components are selected by a committee. The ten components with the largest dividend yields are commonly referred to as the Dogs of the Dow. As with all stock prices, the prices of the constituent stocks and consequently the value of the index itself are affected by the performance of the respective companies as well as macroeconomic factors.

Components[edit]

As of August&#;31, ,[update] the Dow Jones Industrial Average consists of the following companies, with a weighting as of October&#;19, ,[update] as shown:[8]

Former components[edit]

Main article: Historical components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average

As of August 31, , the components of the DJIA have changed 55 times since its beginning on May 26, General Electric had the longest continuous presence on the index, beginning in the original index in and ending in Changes to the index since are as follows:

  • On May 6, , Caterpillar Inc., J.P. Morgan Chase, and the Walt Disney Company replaced American Can, Navistar, and U.S. Steel.[9]
  • On March 17, , Travelers Inc., Hewlett-Packard, Johnson & Johnson, and Walmart replaced Westinghouse Electric, Texaco, Bethlehem Steel, and F. W. Woolworth Company.[10]
  • On November 1, , Microsoft, Intel, SBC Communications, and Home Depot replaced Goodyear Tire, Sears Roebuck, Union Carbide, and Chevron Corporation.[11] Intel and Microsoft became the first and second companies traded on the NASDAQ to be part of the Dow.[11]
  • On April 8, , American International Group, Pfizer, and Verizon Communications replaced AT&T Corporation, Kodak, and International Paper.[12]
  • On February 19, , Chevron Corporation and Bank of America replaced Altria Group and Honeywell. Chevron was previously a Dow component from July 18, to November 1, During Chevron's absence, its split-adjusted price per share went from $44 to $85, while the price of petroleum rose from $24 to $ per barrel.[13]
  • On September 22, , Kraft Foods Inc. replaced American International Group (AIG) in the index.[14][15]
  • On June 8, , The Travelers Companies and Cisco Systems replaced Motors Liquidation Company (formerly General Motors) and Citigroup. Cisco became the third company traded on the NASDAQ to be part of the Dow.[16]
  • On September 24, , UnitedHealth Group replaced Kraft Foods Inc. following Kraft's split into Mondelez International and Kraft Foods.
  • On September 20, , Goldman Sachs, Nike, Inc., and Visa Inc. replaced Alcoa, Bank of America, and Hewlett-Packard. Visa replaced Hewlett-Packard because of the split into HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise.[17][18][19]
  • On March 19, , Apple Inc. replaced AT&T, which had been a component of the DJIA since November [20][21] Apple became the fourth company traded on the NASDAQ to be part of the Dow.
  • On September 1, , DowDuPont replaced DuPont. DowDuPont was formed by the merger of Dow Chemical Company with DuPont.[22]
  • On June 26, , Walgreens Boots Alliance replaced General Electric, which had been a component of the DJIA since November , after being part of the inaugural index in May and much of the to period.[23][24][25]
  • On April 2, , Dow Inc. replaced DowDuPont. Dow, Inc. is a spin-off of DowDuPont, itself a merger of Dow Chemical Company and DuPont.[26][27][28]
  • On April 6, , Raytheon Technologies replaced United Technologies. Raytheon is the name of the combination of United Technologies and the Raytheon Company, which merged as of April 3, The newly combined conglomerate does not include previous subsidiaries Carrier Global or Otis Worldwide[29]
  • On August 31, , Amgen, Honeywell, and Salesforce.com replaced ExxonMobil, Pfizer, and Raytheon Technologies.

Investment methods[edit]

Investing in the DJIA is possible via index funds as well as via derivatives such as option contracts and futures contracts.

Mutual and exchange-traded funds[edit]

Index funds, including mutual funds and exchange-traded funds, that replicate, before fees and expenses, the performance of the index by holding the same stocks as the index in the same proportions can be purchased via any electronic trading platform or stockbroker. An exchange-traded funds (ETF) that replicates the performance of the index is issued by State Street Corporation (NYSE&#;Arca:&#;DIA).[30]

ProShares offers leveraged ETFs that attempt to produce 3x the daily result of either investing in (NYSE&#;Arca:&#;UDOW) or shorting (NYSE&#;Arca:&#;SDOW) the Dow Jones Industrial Average.[31]

Futures contracts[edit]

In the derivatives market, the CME Group through its subsidiaries the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) and the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), issues Futures Contracts; the E-mini Dow ($5) Futures (YM), which track the average and trade on their exchange floors respectively. Trading is typically carried out in an open outcry auction, or over an electronic network such as CME's Globex platform.

Options contracts[edit]

The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) issues option contracts on the Dow through the root symbol DJX. Options on various Dow-underlying ETFs are also available for trading.[32]

Annual returns[edit]

The following table shows the annual development of the Dow Jones Index, which was calculated back to [33][34]

Year Closing value Change in points Change in percent
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,
2,
3,
3,
3,
3,
5,1,
6,1,
7,1,
9,1,
11,2,
10,
10,
8,−1,
10,2,
10,
10,
12,1,
13,
8,−4,
10,1,
11,1,
12,
13,
16,3,
17,1,
17,
19,2,
24,4,
23,−1,
28, 5,
30, 2,

History[edit]

See also: Closing milestones of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average

Precursor[edit]

DJIA monthly trading volume in shares from to

In , Charles Dow composed his first stock average, which contained nine railroads and two industrial companies that appeared in the Customer's Afternoon Letter, a daily two-page financial news bulletin which was the precursor to The Wall Street Journal. On January 2, , the number of stocks represented in what is now the Dow Jones Transportation Average dropped from 14 to 12, as the Central Pacific Railroad and Central Railroad of New Jersey were removed. Though comprising the same number of stocks, this index contained only one of the original twelve industrials that would eventually form Dow's most famous index.[35]

Initial components[edit]

Dow calculated his first average purely of industrial stocks on May 26, , creating what is now known as the Dow Jones Industrial Average. None of the original 12 industrials still remain part of the index.[36]

  • American Cotton Oil Company, a predecessor company to Hellmann's and Best Foods, now part of Unilever.[37]
  • American Sugar Refining Company, became Domino Sugar in , now Domino Foods, Inc.[37]
  • American Tobacco Company, broken up in a antitrust action.
  • Chicago Gas Company, bought by Peoples Gas Light in , was an operating subsidiary of the now-defunct Integrys Energy Group until [37]
  • Distilling & Cattle Feeding Company, now Millennium Chemicals, formerly a division of LyondellBasell.[38][37]
  • General Electric, still in operation, removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average in [37]
  • Laclede Gas Company, still in operation as Spire Inc, removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average in [37]
  • National Lead Company, now NL Industries, removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average in [37]
  • North American Company, an electric utilityholding company, broken up by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in [37]
  • Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company in Birmingham, Alabama, bought by U.S. Steel in ; U.S. Steel was removed from the Dow Jones Industrial Average in [37]
  • United States Leather Company, dissolved in [37]
  • United States Rubber Company, changed its name to Uniroyal in , merged with private Goodrich Corporation in , tire business bought by Michelin in [37] (The remainder of Goodrich remained independent several more years but was acquired by United Technologies in and became a part of UTC Aerospace Systems, now Collins Aerospace, a Raytheon Technologies subsidiary.)

Early years[edit]

When it was first published in the mids, the index stood at a level of It reached a peak of during the summer of , but ended up hitting its all-time low of in the summer of during the Panic of Many of the biggest percentage price moves in the Dow occurred early in its history, as the nascent industrial economy matured. In the s, the Dow halted its momentum as it worked its way through two financial crises: the Panic of and the Panic of The Dow remained stuck in a range between 53 and points until late The negativity surrounding the San Francisco earthquake did little to improve the economic climate; the index broke for the first time in [39]

At the start of the s, the Panic of – stifled economic growth. On July 30, , as the average stood at a level of , a decision was made to close down the New York Stock Exchange, and suspend trading for a span of four and a half months. Some historians believe the exchange was closed because of a concern that markets would plunge as a result of panic over the onset of World War I. An alternative explanation is that the United States Secretary of the Treasury, William Gibbs McAdoo, closed the exchange to conserve the U.S. gold stock in order to launch the Federal Reserve System later that year, with enough gold to keep the United States on par with the gold standard. When the markets reopened on December 12, , the index closed at , a gain of %. This is frequently reported as a large drop, due to using a later redefinition. Reports from the time say that the day was positive.[40] Following World War I, the United States experienced another economic downturn, the Post–World War I recession. The Dow's performance remained unchanged from the closing value of the previous decade, adding only %, from points at the beginning of , to a level of points at the end of [41]

The Dow experienced a long bull run from to late when it rose from 73 to points.[42] In , the components of the Dow were increased to 30 stocks near the economic height of that decade, which was nicknamed the Roaring Twenties. This period downplayed the influence of the Depression of –21 and certain international conflicts such as the Polish–Soviet War, the Irish Civil War, the Turkish War of Independence and the initial phase of the Chinese Civil War. After a peak of on September 3, , the bottom of the crash came just 2 months later on November 13, , at intraday, closing slightly higher at [43] The Wall Street Crash of and the ensuing Great Depression over the next several years returned the average to its starting point, almost 90% below its peak. Overall for the s decade, the Dow still ended with a healthy % gain, from to points at the end of [42] In inflation-adjusted numbers, the high of on September 3, was not surpassed until

Marked by global instability and the Great Depression, the s contended with several consequential European and Asian outbreaks of war, leading up to catastrophic World War II in Other conflicts during the decade which affected the stock market included the – Spanish Civil War, the – Second Italo-Abyssinian War, the Soviet-Japanese Border War of , and the Second Sino-Japanese War of The United States experienced the Recession of –, which temporarily brought economic recovery to a halt. The largest one-day percentage gain in the index happened in the depths of the s bear market on March 15, , when the Dow gained % to close at However, as a whole throughout the Great Depression, the Dow posted some of its worst performances, for a negative return during most of the s for new and old stock market investors. For the decade, the Dow Jones average was down from points at the beginning of , to a stable level of points at the end of , a loss of about 40%.[44]

s[edit]

Post-war reconstruction during the s, along with renewed optimism of peace and prosperity, brought about a 39% surge in the Dow from around the level to The strength in the Dow occurred despite the Recession of and various global conflicts.

s[edit]

During the s, the Korean War and the Cold War did not stop the Dow's climb higher. A % increase in the average from a level of to ensued over the course of that decade.

s[edit]

The Dow began to stall during the s as the markets trudged through the Kennedy Slide of , but still managed a respectable 30% gain from the level to

s[edit]

The s marked a time of economic uncertainty and troubled relations between the U.S. and certain Middle-Eastern countries. The s energy crisis was a prelude to a disastrous economic climate along with stagflation, the combination of high unemployment and high inflation. However, on November 14, , the average closed at 1,, above the 1, mark for the first time, during a brief relief rally in the midst of a lengthy bear market.[39] Between January and December , the average lost 48% of its value in what became known as the – stock market crash, closing at on December 4, In , the index reached 1, several times and it closed the year at 1, Although the Vietnam War ended in , new tensions arose towards Iran surrounding the Iranian Revolution in Performance-wise for the s, the index remained virtually flat, rising less than 5% from about the level to

s[edit]

The Dow fell % on Black Monday ()from about the 2, level to around 1, Two days later, it rose % above the 2, level for a mild recovery attempt.

The s began with the early s recession. In early , the index broke above 1, several times, but then retreated. After closing above 2, in January ,[39] the largest one-day percentage drop occurred on Black Monday, October 19, , when the average fell %. There were no clear reasons given to explain the crash.

On October 13, , the Friday the 13th mini-crash, which initiated the collapse of the junk bond market, resulted in a loss of almost 7% of the index in a single day.[45]

During the s, the Dow increased % from level to 2,; despite the market crashes, Silver Thursday, an early s recession, the s oil glut, the Japanese asset price bubble, and other political distractions. The index had only two negative years in the s: in and

s[edit]

The s brought on rapid advances in technology along with the introduction of the dot-com era. The markets contended with the oil price shock compounded with the effects of the early s recession and a brief European situation surrounding Black Wednesday.[citation needed] Certain influential foreign conflicts such as the Soviet coup d'état attempt which took place as part of the initial stages of the Dissolution of the Soviet Union and the Revolutions of ; the First Chechen War and the Second Chechen War, the Gulf War, and the Yugoslav Wars failed to dampen economic enthusiasm surrounding the ongoing Information Age and the "irrational exuberance" (a phrase coined by Alan Greenspan[46]) of the dot-com bubble.[citation needed] Between late and early , the Dow staggered through the 3, level making only modest gains as the biotechnology sector suffered through the downfall of the Biotech Bubble; as many biotech companies saw their share prices rapidly rise to record levels and then subsequently fall to new all-time lows.[citation needed]

The Dow soared from to between January to July [39] In October , the events surrounding the Asian financial crisis plunged the Dow into a point loss to a close of 7,; a retrenchment of % in what became known as the October 27, mini-crash.

However, the Dow continued climbing past despite negativity surrounding the Russian financial crisis along with the subsequent fallout from the collapse of Long-Term Capital Management due to bad bets placed on the movement of the Russian ruble.[47]

On March 29, , the average closed at 10,, its first close above 10, This prompted a celebration on the trading floor, complete with party hats.[48] Total gains for the decade exceeded %; from the 2, level to 11,, which equates to % annually.

The Dow averaged a % return compounded annually for the 20th century, a record Warren Buffett called "a wonderful century"; when he calculated that to achieve that return again, the index would need to close at about 2,, by December [49]

s[edit]

The Dow fell % after the September 11 attacks. Exchanges were closed from September 12 through September 16,

On September 17, , the first day of trading after the September 11 attacks, the Dow fell %. However, the Dow began an upward trend shortly after the attacks, and quickly regained all lost ground to close above 10, for the year. In , the Dow dropped to a 4-year low of on September 24, , due to the stock market downturn of and lingering effects of the dot-com bubble. Overall, while the NASDAQ fell roughly 75% and the S&P fell roughly 50% between and , the Dow only fell 27% during the same period. In , the Dow held steady within the 7, to 9,point level and recovered to the 10, mark by year end.[50]

The Dow continued climbing and reached a record high of 14, on October 11, , a mark which was not matched until March [51] It then dropped for the next year due to the Financial crisis of

On September 15, , a wider financial crisis became evident when Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy along with the economic effect of record high oil prices which had reached almost $ per barrel two months earlier. The Dow lost more than points for the day, returning to its mid-July lows below 11,[52][53] A series of bailout packages, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of , proposed and implemented by the Federal Reserve and United States Department of the Treasury did not prevent further losses. After nearly six months of extreme volatility during which the Dow experienced its largest one-day point loss, largest daily point gain, and largest intraday range (of more than 1, points) at the time, the index closed at a new year low of 6, on March 9, ,[54] its lowest close since April The Dow had lost 20% of its value in only six weeks.

Towards the latter half of , the average rallied towards the 10, level amid optimism that the Lates recession, the United States housing bubble and the financial crisis of –, were easing and possibly coming to an end. For the decade, the Dow saw a rather substantial pullback for a negative return from 11, to 10,, a loss of a little over 9%.[55]

s[edit]

A graph that illustrates a trading range from the mid-7, level to the 14, level aside from a low in the mid-6, level in early The average traded at or near the 10, range for most of the s decade.
The Dow from January through February

During the first half of the s decade, aided by the Federal Reserve's loose monetary policy including quantitative easing, the Dow made a notable rally attempt. This was despite significant volatility due to growing global concerns such as the European sovereign debt crisis, the Dubai World debt standstill, and the United States debt-ceiling crisis of [citation needed]

On May 6, , the Dow lost % intra-day and regained nearly all of it within a single hour. This event, which became known as the Flash Crash, sparked new regulations to prevent future incidents.[56]

Six years after its previous high in , the Dow finally closed at a new record high on March 5, [57] It continued rising for the next several years past 17, points until a brief –16 stock market selloff in the second half of [58] It then picked up again early and climbed past 25, points on January 4, [59]

On November 9, , the day after Donald Trump's victory over Hillary Clinton in the U.S. presidential election, the index soared, coming within roughly 25 points of its all-time intraday high to that point.[60]

Volatility returned in when the Dow fell nearly 20%.[61][62][63] By early January , the index had quickly rallied more than 10% from its Christmas Eve low.[64]

Overall in the s decade, the Dow increased from 10, to 28, points for a substantial gain of %.[65]

s[edit]

Despite the emerging coronavirus pandemic, the Dow continued its bull run from the previous decade before peaking at 29, on February 12, (29, intraday on the same day). The index slowly retreated for the remainder of the week and into the next week, before coronavirus fears and an oil price war between Saudi Arabia and Russia sent the index into a tailspin, recording several days of losses[66] (and gains[67]) of at least 1, points, a typical symptom of a bear market[68] as previously seen in October during the financial crisis. Volatility rose high enough to trigger multiple minute trading halts.[69] In the first quarter of , the DJI fell 23%, its worst quarter since [70] The market recovered in the third quarter returning to 28, on October 12, , and peaking momentarily at a new all-time high of 29, on 9 November at ET, following the announcement, earlier in the day, of the vaccine against Coronavirus from "Pfizer". The Dow (and reported by the UPI) closed over 30, on December 31, at a record 30, On November 24, following news that the transition of President-Elect Biden was approved, the Dow increased by more than pts, closing at 30,[71]

Calculation[edit]

To calculate the DJIA, the sum of the prices of all 30 stocks is divided by a divisor, the Dow Divisor. The divisor is adjusted in case of stock splits, spinoffs or similar structural changes, to ensure that such events do not in themselves alter the numerical value of the DJIA. Early on, the initial divisor was composed of the original number of component companies; this initially made the DJIA a simple arithmetic average. The present divisor, after many adjustments, is less than one (meaning the index is larger than the sum of the prices of the components). That is:

{\text{DJIA}}={\sum p \over d}

where p are the prices of the component stocks and d is the Dow Divisor.

Events such as stock splits or changes in the list of the companies composing the index alter the sum of the component prices. In these cases, in order to avoid discontinuity in the index, the Dow Divisor is updated so that the quotations right before and after the event coincide:

{\text{DJIA}}={\sum p_{\text{old}} \over d_{\text{old}}}={\sum p_{\text{new}} \over d_{\text{new}}}.

Since June&#;3, ,[update] the Dow Divisor is [72] and every $1 change in price in a particular stock within the average equates to a (or 1 ÷ ) point movement.

Assessment[edit]

Issues with market representation[edit]

With the inclusion of only 30 stocks, critics such as Ric Edelman argue that the DJIA is an inaccurate representation of overall market performance compared to more comprehensive indexes such as the S&P Index or the Russell Index. Additionally, the DJIA is criticized for being a price-weighted index, which gives higher-priced stocks more influence over the average than their lower-priced counterparts, but takes no account of the relative industry size or market capitalization of the components. For example, a $1 increase in a lower-priced stock can be negated by a $1 decrease in a much higher-priced stock, even though the lower-priced stock experienced a larger percentage change. In addition, a $1 move in the smallest component of the DJIA has the same effect as a $1 move in the largest component of the average. For example, during September–October , former component AIG's reverse split-adjusted stock price collapsed from $ on September 8 to $ on October 27; contributing to a roughly 3,point drop in the index.[73]

As of June&#;,[update] Goldman Sachs and UnitedHealth Group are among the highest-priced stocks in the average and therefore have the greatest influence on it. Alternately, Cisco Systems and Coca-Cola are among the lowest-priced stocks in the average and have the least amount of sway in the price movement.[74] Critics of the DJIA and most securities professionals recommend the market-capitalization weightedS&P Index or the Wilshire , the latter of which includes most publicly listed U.S. stocks, as better indicators of the U.S. stock market.

Correlation among components[edit]

A study between the correlation of components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average compared with the movement of the index finds that the correlation is higher when the stocks are declining. The correlation is lowest in a time when the average is flat or rises a modest amount.[75]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  27. ^Kaskey, Jack (April 2, ). "Dow Inc. Jumps in Trading Debut After Split From DowDuPont". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on December 26, Retrieved April 2,
  28. ^Otani, Akane (March 26, ). "Dow Inc. to Replace DowDuPont in DJIA". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 14, Retrieved September 15,
  29. ^"Otis Worldwide and Carrier Global Set to Join S&P ; American Tower to Join S&P and Macy's to Join S&P SmallCap "(PDF) (Press release). PR Newswire. March 31, Archived from the original on April 6, Retrieved April 6,
  30. ^Johnston, Kevin (July 16, ). "Top 4 ETFs to Track the Dow". Investopedia. Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved February 9,
  31. ^"ProShares: Products". ProShares.
  32. ^"SPDR Dow Jones Industrial Average ETF (DIA) Option Chain". nasdaq.com. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved September 15,
  33. ^"Daily Closing Values of the Dow Jones Average in the United States, May 2, to Present". MeasuringWorth.com. Archived from the original on June 8, Retrieved November 10,
  34. ^"Dow Jones Industrial Average (^DJI) Historical Data - Yahoo Finance". Yahoo! Finance. Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved January 21,
  35. ^"Fool.com: History of the Dow". The Motley Fool. Archived from the original on October 4,
  36. ^Schaefer, Steve (July 15, ). "The First 12 Dow Components: Where Are They Now?". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 5, Retrieved September 15,
  37. ^ abcdefghijkPlanes, Alex (April 9, ). "What Happened to the First 12 Stocks on the Dow?". The Motley Fool. Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved September 15,
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  39. ^ abcd"Dow millennium marks". CNN. July 16, Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved September 15,
  40. ^"Setting the Record Straight on the Dow Drop". The New York Times. October 26, Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved February 7,
  41. ^Dow Jones Closing Prices to Archived October 5, , at the Wayback Machine. Automationinformation.com
  42. ^ abDow Jones Closing Prices to Archived October 5, , at the Wayback Machine. Automationinformation.com.
  43. ^Anderson, Benjamin (). Economics and the Public Welfare: A Financial and Economic History of the United States, –. LibertyPress (2nd ed., ). p.&#; ISBN&#;.
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  56. ^Paradis, Tim (May 6, ).Wall St. rollercoaster: Stocks fall nearly 10 pctArchived May 9, , at the Wayback Machine. Associated Press. Retrieved May 7,
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  64. ^DeCambre, Mark (January 9, ). "Dow and S&P escape correction territory after 5-day stock-market surge". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on February 3, Retrieved March 20,
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Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average
Introduction to Pivot Tables, Charts, and Dashboards in Excel (Part 1)

Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA)

Source:S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC  

Release:Dow Jones Averages  

Units:  Index, Not Seasonally Adjusted

Frequency:  Daily, Close

Notes:

The observations for the Dow Jones Industrial Average represent the daily index value at market close. The market typically closes at 4 PM ET, except for holidays when it sometimes closes early.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average provides a view of the US stock market and economy. Originally, the index was made up of 12 stocks, it now contains 30 component companies in various industries. See indexology for more information.

Copyright © , S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC. All rights reserved. Reproduction of Dow Jones Industrial Average in any form is prohibited except with the prior written permission of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC ("S&P"). S&P does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy, completeness or availability of any information and is not responsible for any errors or omissions, regardless of the cause or for the results obtained from the use of such information. S&P DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE. In no event shall S&P be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages, costs, expenses, legal fees, or losses (including lost income or lost profit and opportunity costs) in connection with subscriber's or others' use of Dow Jones Industrial Average.

Permission to reproduce this series can be requested from [email protected] More contact details are available here, including phone numbers for all regional offices.

Suggested Citation:

S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones Industrial Average [DJIA], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/DJIA, October 20,

Sours: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/DJIA

Graph dji

Interactive Charts provide the most advanced and flexible platform for analyzing historical data, with over customizable studies, drawing tools, custom spreads and expressions, plus a wide range of visualization tools.

While logged into the site, you will see continuous streaming updates to the chart.

In addition, U.S. equity charts can be configured to show real-time Cboe BZX prices. You may toggle this setting on and off using the "Real-Time" check box at the top of the chart. All other non-U.S. equity charts will show delayed prices, per exchange rules.

Barchart Dashboard (included in your free Barchart membership) also provides all site members a streaming chart experience.

Default Chart Settings

If you are not logged into the site, or have not set up a default Chart Template (free site membership required), the default chart presented is a 6-Month Daily chart using OHLC bars. If you are logged in (recommended for the BEST viewing experience), we remember your chart settings for the next time you view a chart.


Auto-Chart Saving

Interactive Charts were designed to remember and retain your personalized settings when you are logged into the site. Any tool added to a chart is always saved and will be displayed next time you access that specific chart.

There are three auto-saving mechanisms available, defined in your Site Preferences page in the My Barchart tab.

  1. Use Last-Viewed Chart Settings: Any changes you make to a chart (aggregation, bar type, studies, etc.) are remembered and carried forward to the next chart you view. This is the recommended setting for a continuous chart viewing experience.

  2. Use Chart Template: This option should be used when you want to rely on a specific template to define your preferred chart configuration. When chosen, you must identify a template to apply for every chart you view.

  3. Save Every Chart: Every chart is saved, available for Barchart Premier Members. This option offers the highest level of chart customization, where every symbol can potentially have its own unique chart setup. You will always see the chart for a specific symbol as you did the last time you viewed it. For futures traders, however, this option is not recommended, as each time a futures contract expires the next futures contract chart must again be configured to your preferred settings.

    Note: Regardless of the saving mechanism chosen, you can always apply a chart template to change the settings on any chart you view.

Changing the Chart Symbol

Change the symbol either by entering a new symbol in the chart form, or by entering a new symbol in the Search box at the top of the page.


Changing the Bar Type

The graph can be changed using the menu next to the Symbol box, by opening the Settings icon and selecting the Display tab, or by right-clicking on the chart, and selecting Display Options / Bar Type.


Changing to "Dark Theme"

Interactive Charts can be configured to use a dark background / dark theme when you use the "pop-out chart" feature, or when using Flipcharts or Dashboard. Click the Pop-out icon at the top right corner of the chart, then use the "Mode" button to toggle between light and dark theme.


Quick Charts

Links are provided at the top of the chart to allow you to quickly change the aggregation and time frame. The + to the right of the Quick Chart links allow you to further fine-tune the aggregation (Intraday, Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly) along with the period you wish to display.

For Commodity Contracts: Aggregation selections for Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly charts allow you to specify whether to use Contract or Nearest Futures.  Nearest will use whatever contract was the Nearest futures contract on the date of the given bar. The Price Box will show the contract that was used to build the bar.

To build a Continuation chart for a commodity (one that uses the same contract month - Z17, Z16, Z15 etc. - back in time to build the chart) open the Settings menu, and in the Adjustments tab check "Build Continuation Chart." Then choose a Daily, Weekly, Monthly, or Quarterly aggregation.


Custom Date Range

You may set a custom date range for a specific aggregation by clicking the Calendar icon. First, choose whether you want to see Intraday, Daily, Weekly, Monthly, or Quarterly, then choose "Date" from the period drop-down list. You can then enter a beginning and ending date range.


Zooming and Panning the Chart

Chart panning is used to drag the data shown on the chart backwards and forwards in time. Chart panning is used when you want to see older data than what is initially shown on the chart. To pan the chart, position your cursor on the main chart pane and drag and drop the data to the left or the right. To reset a chart that's been panned, look for the double arrows at the very bottom right portion of the chart. Clicking these arrows will return the chart to the initial setting.

Chart zooming allows you to change the scale level on the chart (magnify the area shown). To zoom the chart, drag and drop either the time scale at the bottom, or the price scale at the right. To reset a chart that's been zoomed, double-click on the time scale or the price scale (whichever needs to be reset).


Settings

Open the Settings menu to access different options for your chart.

SYMBOL Tab

  • Bar Type: For th selected Bar Type, you may customize the color and thickness of the bars.

    OHLC Bars are drawn to show the open-high-low-close. A vertical line is drawn between the highest and lowest price. The horizontal dash extending to the left of the bar represents the open, and the horizontal dash extending to the right of the bar represents the closing price.

    Colored OHLC Bars and HLC Bars show the price bars in either green or red, depending on the bar's close price relates to the previous close. When green, the close is greater than the previous close; when red, the close is less than the previous close.


    Candlestick Hollow:
    • If Close is greater than previous close, the bar is outlined in black.
    • If Close is less than previous close, the bar is outlined in red.
    • When close is above the open price, the candle is hollow.
    • When close is below the open price, the candle is filled.

    Candlestick Open-to-Close plot the difference between the close of the current bar and the open price of the current bar.

    • If Close is greater than Open, the bar is colored green.
    • If Close is less than Open, the bar is colored red.

    Candlestick Close-to-Close plot the difference between the close of the current bar and the closing price of the previous bar (price change)

    • If today's close is greater than the previous close, the bar is colored green.
    • If today's close is less than the previous close, the bar is colored red.

    Heikin-Ashi, which means average bar in Japanese, is a distinct type of Candlestick charts. They use average ranges to calculate the points of the Candle, which smooths out the chart and in turn provides a clearer view of the trend of the market. Heikin-Ashi are also different from traditional Candlestick charts, in that they take the prior session open and close into account for the open, which in turn removes any gaps between bars on the chart.

    The Heikin-Ashi chart is plotted as a candlestick chart, where the down days are represented by filled bars, while the up days are represented by hollow bars.

    Calculation:

    • Open = (Open of previous bar+Close of previous bar) / 2
    • High = maximum of High, Open, or Close (whichever is highest)
    • Low = minimum of Low, Open, or Close (whichever is lowest)
    • Close = (Open+High+Low+Close)/4

    Interpretation:

    • Hollow candles represent an uptrend, with larger hollow bars indicating a stronger uptrend.
    • Filled candles represent a downtrend, with larger filled bars indicating a stronger downtrend.

    Elder-Impulse System: The Elder Impulse System was designed by Alexander Elder and featured in his book, Come Into My Trading Room. According to Elder, “the system identifies inflection points where a trend speeds up or slows down.”

    The Impulse System is based on two indicators, a day exponential moving average and the MACD-Histogram. The moving average identifies the trend, while the MACD-Histogram measures momentum. As a result, the Impulse System combines trend following and momentum to identify trading impulses. This unique indicator combination is color coded into the price bars for easy reference.

    Green price bars show that the bulls are in control of both trend and momentum as both the day EMA and MACD-Histogram are rising. A red price bar indicates that the bears have taken control because the day EMA and MACD-Histogram are falling. A blue price bar indicates mixed technical signals, with neither buying nor selling pressure predominating.
    Read more here.


    Line and Area charts plot only the close for a given bar.

    Renko charts are built using price movement vs. traditional price movement, where one bar is plotted for a specific time period. The chart resembles a series of "bricks", where a new brick is generated when the price moves a specific price amount. By default, Barchart calculates the brick size based on a 14 period Average True Range (ATR), using the Close for brick construction.

    Renko charts have additional parameters you can set by opening the Settings menu and going to the SYMBOL tab. Besides setting color options for the up/down bricks, you may also set

    • Method (ATR) - Choose from Traditional or ATR. Traditional uses the constant Brick Size, where ATR values result in fluctuating brick sizes.
    • Period (14) - the period used to calculate the ATR.
    • Source (Close) - Valid options are Close and High/Low. For more sensitivity, choose the High/Low range. When looking to focus on end-of-day price data, choose Close. 
    • BrickSize (10) - Used with the Traditional Method. The number of points the security must move before a new brick is formed.

Column: Much like Line and Area charts, a Column chart plots a vertical bar for the close.


  • High/Low Price Markers: Charts are designed to indicate the high and low bars for the visible data range using a small "arc" on two bars:

    High and Low Bars on visible data range

  • Extended Hours: Available for US and UK intraday equities, the chart will show pre- and post-market data when available.

  • Real-time Cboe BZX data when available (U.S. Equities only): For U.S. equities, the chart will use real-time prices from the Cboe BZX Exchange when markets are in session and when Cboe BZX prices are available for the symbol on the chart (requires you to be logged in to your free Barchart account.) When checked, and when using Cboe BZX prices, the symbol shown on the chart watermark will show as .BZ (IBM.BZ) to indicate that Cboe BZX prices are being used.

DISPLAY Tab

  • Chart Size: Identifies the overall height of the chart on the page. Choose from Small, Medium, Large, X-Large. 

  • Symbol & Study Data: Determines how the chart will show you price / study information as you move your mouse over the chart. For mobile devices, the chart always uses the "Headers" option, regardless of what your template or last used settings. Options include:
    • Standard: the price/study information is displayed in a floating Price Box as you move your mouse over the chart
    • Bubble: price/study information is displayed in a tooltip bubble as you move your mouse over the chart
    • Headers: price/study information is displayed in small "cards" at the top of each pane
    • None: no price/study information is shown, for a "clean" chart.

  • Show Trackball: When on, the trackball displays a "dot" that follows, on mouseover, each study added to the chart. It help identify the corresponding tooltip with the data computed by the study

  • Crosshair: You can modify the colors and the line types for both the vertical and horizontal crosshairs.

SCALE Tab

  • Scale Type: Choose from Linear or Logarithmic. Linear scaling will calculate the most intelligent scale using the high, the low and a series of acceptable divisors for possible scales. The Logarithmic Scale uses scaling that allows for a large range of prices to be displayed without the compression of data seen on the linear scaling.

  • Scale Values: Choose from Price or % Change. (Percent Change will also change your Bar Type to Line.)

    Percent Change charts calculate the percent change for data showing on the chart. For example, if a 6-Month chart is requested, the chart will calculate the relative percent in change from the first visible bar on the chart. Percent change is always 0% for the first visible bar. As you scroll the chart's data set, the percent change is also recalculated and updated based on the data shown on the chart.

  • Show Price Labels: There are three settings to choose from:
    • Exact Value (Allow Overlap): shows the price labels at their exact position on the price scale. However, sometimes this setting means you will not be able to read all the price labels for the symbol and studies that have values close to each other.
    • Stack: This option will place price labels one on top of the other, so you can easily see them all on the price scale. The labels, however, may not align with the exact prices if multiple labels are close to one another.
    • Hide: will always hide price labels on the price scale. When using the "Hide" option, you will have to rely on the Floating Price Box or data cards that show in the chart to read symbol/study values as you mouse over the chart

  • Right Margin: This setting configures the empty space at the far right side of the chart, and is represented by the number of bars to "leave empty". The default setting is 2 bars, but can be configured anywhere between 1 and bars.


EVENTS Tab (for U.S. Equities)

  • Events: When checked, the chart will show any Dividends, Earnings or Splits on the applicable date.

  • Dividends Back Adjust: When checked, price history is adjusted for dividends.

FUTURES Tab (For futures contracts)

These settings determine how futures contracts roll for Nearby and Continuation charts.

  • Build "Continuation" Chart: Use same contract month (Z17, Z16, Z15 etc.) back in time to build the chart. This setting is used in conjunction with a Period of Daily, Weekly, Monthly, or Quarterly.

  • Contract Roll: You may either roll the contract based on number of days to expiration, or based on Volume / Open Interest.

  • Back Adjust History: When checked, price history is adjusted when switching contract months.

APPEARANCE Tab

  • Tools Panel: This setting determines whether the Tools Drawing panel is docked and always visible on the left side of the chart.

  • Grids: Three options. "Basic Grids" are larger grids, "Full Grids" are finer. You may also select "No Grids".

  • Font Size (px): you can set the font size in pixels for both the horizontal (time) or vertical (price) axis.

Adding & Deleting Studies

You may add an unlimited number of studies to an Interactive Chart. When charting a U.S. or Canadian equity, the Studies menu also displays Fundamentals which can be plotted as either quarterly or annual data.

Click the +Study button to view available studies. Also use this menu to remove studies that have already been applied to the chart.

When adding a study, you are prompted for the study parameters, and can change the color and thickness of the study plot before adding it to the chart. You may also identify the pane in which the study should be added (on the main chart or in a new pane).

Once a study is on the chart, you can remove it by opening the Studies menu and clicking the red "Delete" icon next to the study name. You may also delete a study by clicking the X that appears next to the study name shown on the chart or by opening the study parameters and clicking Delete..

Note: When logged in, Barchart remembers the settings you last used on each study. For example, if you add a Simple Moving Average, change the period to 50 and change the color to red, the next time you add a Simple Moving Average it will default to the same settings.


Cloning Studies

Once a study is on your chart, you can quickly clone it (make an exact duplicate), then modify the clone's parameters. This is helpful if you want to quickly add a number of Moving Averages to your chart, using different period parameters and colors for each.

  1. Add a study to the chart.
  2. Click the + Study button, then click on the study as if you were going to Edit it.
  3. Click CLONE STUDY. A new set of parameters appears for the clone, where you can adjust the parameters, colors, plot thickness. When done, click ADD.

Adding Tools

Interactive Charts can dock a Drawing Tools Panel to the left side of the chart, making it easier for you to access and add chart annotations. To show or hide the panel, open the Settings menu, go to the Appearance tab, and check or uncheck "Tools Panel." When logged into your account, we will remember the last-used tool in each group, and whether or not you want the Tools Panel to show on your chart.

Note: The Tools Panel is not available on mobile devices.

Click the Tools button to view available annotations that can be added to your chart, or open the chart menu (the three horizontal bars at the top right) and select Add Drawing Tool. Tools are divided into three categories: Drawings, Calculations, and Symbols.

Once you select a tool, click on the chart to start its placement. (For mobile devices, add the tool by placing your finger on your device and drag to draw.) Any tools or annotations you add are always saved (if you are logged in) and will show the next time you view the chart.

To change the color or parameters of a tool, right-click on the tool after its been placed on the chart. (For mobile devices, double-tap on the tool to open its parameters.) To delete a tool, click on the tool to select it, then press your delete key. Or, right-click on the tool to open the parameters, then select DELETE. (For mobile devices, double-tap on the tool to open its parameters, then select DELETE.)

Note: When logged in, Barchart remembers the settings you last used on each tool. For example, if you add a trend-line and change the color to a red dotted line, the next time you add a trend-line it will default to a red dotted line unless changed again or Reset.


Reordering Panes

Studies, Fundamentals, and Expressions are either added as an "Overlay" (the study is plotted in the main chart window over the underlying chart's price data) or as an "Indicator" (study is added as a new pane at the bottom of the chart).

When a chart has 2 or more panes, you can change their order by clicking the up/down arrows (found at the top left corner of each pane).


Expressions

You can plot an expression or common futures spread by clicking on the "f(x)" button, or by opening the Chart Menu (the three horizontal bars top right of the chart) and selecting "Expressions & Spreads". You may also right-click on the chart to select the same command.

The Expressions dialog allows you to choose from a number of popular commodity spreads. When you select a popular spread from the drop-down list, the expression is built automatically for you. You may also create your own custom spread chart by entering the mathematical calculation.

The calculated results are displayed using the bar type you choose for the expression. Additionally, an expression can be added to the main chart window, or as a new pane on the chart (you'll choose the placement when you create the expression).

If you want to create your own custom expression, you can enter the calculation directly into the expression field. Expressions consist of:

  • symbols - must be enclosed in "curly brackets". Examples: {ZC*1} {ESU17} {IBM} {^EURUSD}
  • constants: any floating point number like ; note that we don't support "scientific" notation (for example E5)
  • operators:
    • unary operator - (negation) so you may enter -2 + 1 and are not forced to type 1 - 2
    • binary operators:
      + (addition)
       - (subtraction) 
      * (multiplication)
       / (division)
       ^(power)
      These are listed in order from lowest to highest precedence (multiplication and division will always happen before addition and subtraction, unless grouped by parentheses).
    • to make sure precedence is correct, parentheses ( and ) can be used; for example 2 ^ 2 + 3 = 7 but 2 ^ (2 + 3) = 32

An example, showcasing all variables:

{ESM20} * - (-( + {ES*2} / 33) ^ 2 * )

To invert the scale for a symbol, enter an expression with a zero preceding the symbol: 0-{SPY} or 0-{IBM}

Note for Futures Contracts: Barchart's charting application commonly uses the * symbol on futures contracts as a shortcut to specify the month. For example, ZC*1 will return the front month, ZC*2 returns the second month out, ZC*3 returns the third month out, etc. Using shortcut symbols when building an expression is allowable:

({ZC*1} + {ZC*2} + {ZC*3}) / 3 will add the front, second and third months for Corn, then divide the result by three.

Comparison Chart

You can add up to eight other symbols for price comparison directly on the chart. To create a Comparison chart, click the "Compare" button, or open the Chart Menu and select "Comparison Chart". You may also right-click on the chart to select the same command, or open the Chart Menu (the three horizontal bars top right of the chart) and select Comparison Chart. We provide a list of major market indices that you can select for comparison, or add your own symbols.

Each comparison symbol uses its own color and bar type (chosen when you create the Comparison chart.)

When a symbol's price scale differs from the underlying chart, you may want to check the "Left Scale" option so the price data can be displayed in an easier-to-read format.

Comparison charts can also be displayed as a "Percent Change" chart, showing the percent difference between the comparison symbols and the underlying symbol on the chart.


Grid Charts

Barchart Premier Members can view the same symbol using different time periods, using a 2 or 4-chart grid. Click the "Grid View" button and select the desired layout. Once the grid is displayed, select a time period for each chart on the grid.

You may change the bar type for all the charts, and add up to three custom studies to apply to each chart. Your grid preference is remembered for the next time you use it on the Interactive Chart page, on a pop-out chart, or in Dashboard.


Templates

If you are a registered site user and are logged in, you may apply a template you've created, or save a chart's setup as a new template. These actions are found in the "Templates" button.

A template is used to display a chart with pre-defined settings, such as aggregation, bar type, studies, and more. Site members may further identify a default chart template to always apply to a new chart in the Site Preferences page found in the My Barchart tab.

Important Notes:

  • Create your own default chart template and identify this in your Site Preferences. For example, if you always want to see Candlesticks on a 30 minute Intraday chart with 2 moving averages, create a template with those parameters, and add it to your Site Preferences. This way, your charts will always start out with your desired configuration.

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DJI MINI 2 Beginners Guide - Start Here

Kelemen Szabolcs

The Dow Jones Industrial Average index has been introduced on 26 May and it has 30 components.

10 year chart of the Dow Jones stock index*

The 10 year chart of Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) summarizes the chages in the price well, however, we recommend to have a look at the chart(s) below, too.

Dow Jones / DJIA index value's change in the past 10 yearsDow Jones / DJIA index value's change in the past 10 years

Similar charts of the past 5 years can be found here.

10 years return graph of DJIA*

People often say that long term investments carry less risk than short term ones.
Well, on the chart below you can see if that is true for yourself in the case of DJIA for the past 10 years. You can find more details about 10 years return of Dow Jones here.

Annualized 3 and 5 years return of Dow Jones / DJIA value in the past 10 yearsAnnualized 3 and 5 years return of Dow Jones / DJIA value in the past 10 years

What can you see on the chart?

You can calculate DJIA&#;s 1 month return from DJIA&#;s value today and DJIA&#;s value 30 days ago. You can also do the same calculation for yesterday and DJIA&#;s value 31 days ago etc. If you do this calculation for each days, you will get a curve of DJIA&#;s 1 month yield. The same applies to other yield periods from 3 months to 5 years.

  • This chart shows the three and the five year yield curve in the past 10 years.
  • Treshold marked with red shows 0% return.

DJIA&#;s performance vs. inflation*

Changes of price in case of DJIA does not carry too much meaning unless we compare it to something else like Customer Price Index (CPI), or an other index.
So this chart shows DJIA&#;s relative change against the US customer price index in the past 10 years.

Dow Jones / DJIA index value compared to US CPI / index in a 10 years chartDow Jones / DJIA index value compared to US CPI / index in a 10 years chart

*charts are updated monthly, and they have been created by using Chartoasis Sesame. If you feel like analyzing DJIA&#;s historical price, you can do that for free at www.chartoasis.com/sesame . You will also need to download DJIA historical data. This step-by-ste guide will explain you how to do it.


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10 yearschartDow Jones / DJIAstock indexSours: https://www.5yearcharts.com/dow-jonesyears-charts-of-performance/

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DJI Trading

Dow Jones Industrial Average Stock Quotes & Charts


By clicking on any of the symbols of the stock components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index (INDU, DJIA) you can access their respective quote and chart. By accessing quotes and charts for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index you can gain insight into the individual companies involved in the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index.

Dow Jones Industrial Average Constituent Stocks
The Dow Jones Industrial Average Index consists of 30 stocks.

Quotes and Charts for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index

Dow Jones Industrials (^DJI) Index


We provide intraday volume and Advance Decline data or and other indexes.

We developed and we are the only source of modulated volume technology, selling and buying volume indicators and volatility adjusted indicators.

Everything to trade Dow Jones Industrials:

  • DJI charts (DJI price charts + DJI volume and advance/decline charts)
  • DJI quotes
  • DJI analysis
  • DJI systems
  • DJI signals
  • and much more

Trading:

List of Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) which could be used to trade Dow Jones Industrials index:

DIA - SPDR Dow Jones Industrials Average
DOG - Proshares Short DOW 30
DDM - Proshares Ultra DOW 30
UDOW - Proshares UltraPro DOW
SDOW - Proshares UltraPro Short DOW

Best Systems:

DIA Trading Systems

DOG Trading Systems

DDM Trading Systems

DXD Trading Systems

UDOW Trading Systems

SDOW Trading Systems

Charts:

Chart

Mobile Charts

Quotes and Components:

Quotes

Components

Performance

Technical Analysis and Signals:

Summary Analysis

Price Analysis

Advance/Decline Analysis

Volume Analysis

Volatility Analysis

Technical Indicators Quotes:

Advance/Decline Sentiment

TRIN

Advance/Decline Ratio

Advance/Decline Line

McClellan Oscillator

Daily Volume

Average Volume

Moving Averages

Stochastic

MACD

RSI

About Dow Jones Industrials Index

Index Name:Dow Jones Industrial Average (^DJI)
Index Ticker (Symbol):DJI
Traded Exchange:CME
Index Issuer:Dow Jones Indexes
Market Sector:Composite
Started to Trade on:Monday, January 01,
Inception Value:$4,

The Dow Jones Industrial Average (also known as the Industrial Average, the Dow 30, the Dow Jones Industrials, the DJI index and the DJIA index) belong to the group of the main stock market indexes that reflect the U.S. economy and U.S. stock market. The Industrial Average index represents 30 large and well-known U.S. companies covering all industries with the exception of transportation and utilities. The index is price weighted.

The Dow Jones Industrials index was created and it has been maintaining by the editors of The Wall Street Journal. The index inception is May 26 of The Dow Jones Industrials index is the second oldest index after the DJT (Dow Jones Transportation Average) index. It was created by Charles Dow and initially the Dow Jones Average index represented 12 leading in the American industry stocks (9 railway roads and 2 industrial companies). Later this index was changed into Dow Jones Industrial (DJI) index which still consisted of 12 stock, but purely stocks of the biggest industrial companies (no railroads).

The DJI price is calculated as weighted average - sum of prices of all 30 stocks from the index's basket divided by the Dow Divisor which is adjusted in the events of stock splits.

The Dow Jones Index (DJI or the "Dow") is one of the oldest and most widely followed of all the market gauges. It consists of 30 stocks which are selected and monitored by The Wall Street Journal and which represent the companies considered leaders in their respective industries. DJI stocks are widely held by individual and institutional investors alike. The 30 Dow stocks represent about a fifth of the total market value of all U. S. stocks; they represent about a quarter of the value of the stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange.

Together with the S&P , Russell and the Nasdaq , the DJI index is the most closely monitored and analyzed by investors all over the world. While the Dow Jones Industrial index is set to track the industrial sector of the U.S. economy, it is also influenced by not only domestic economic reports and political events but also foreign events such as war, terrorism, recessions in other leading countries' and etc.

Components (stocks) of the Dow Jones Industrial index are traded on the two biggest US stock market Exchanges - NYSES and NASDAQ. The DJI index's derivatives are traded on the CBOE (Chicago Board Options Exchange) via CME group. Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) that rack the DJI index are traded via Amex stock market Exchange. One of the most popular way to invest into the DJI index is to trade DIA Exchange Traded Fund which is traded exactly as stocks and which reflects the 1/ of the performance of the Dow Jones Industrial index.

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